The surrounding in which we live comprises of numerous biological organisms. Be it the birds, fishes, and trees, all of them are part of a biodiversity. What exactly does it mean? The term biodiversity was framed as a reduction of biological diversity in 1985 by E.O. Wilson. What is biodiversity and biodiversity conservation?
In simple terms, it is the variability and variety of living organisms together with ecological facilities in which they exist. Let us try to understand biodiversity as a whole and biodiversity conservation which has become a major issue in this developing age.
Types of Biodiversity
Biodiversity comprises of genetic variability and diversity of living forms like animal microbes, plants etc. surviving in a broad range of ecosystems. It should be known that there are three interconnected hierarchical levels of biodiversity, i.e., genetic diversity, community or ecosystem diversity and species diversity.
It comprises of the variation in the count and types of genes together with chromosomes existent in different species. Further, the magnitude of disparity in genes for specific species rises with an increase in environmental factors of the habitat and size.
It highlights the variety in the number and productivity of the species within a region. Here the species richness can be defined as the count of species present per unit area. Also, the richness of a species indicates the extent of biodiversity concerning a particular site. provides a means for comparing different sites.
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This type of diversity focuses on the assemblage as well as the interaction of species living together in the well-defined physical environment. It associates with different versions of habitats, biotic groups and ecological processes in a biosphere. Further, it also tells about the multiplicity within the ecosystem. You can call it Land Escape Diversity since it includes size and placement of various ecosystems.
Conservation Of Biodiversity
Over the years, the depletion of biodiversity has been quite active. This is happening as a result of habitat loss, excessive exploitation of resources, climatic changes, diseases, pollution, poaching of animals etc. In order to correct this scenario, biodiversity conservation has been majorly stressed by governments and social organizations.
It must be understood that human beings cherish almost all benefits from the biodiversity. Hence, they should focus on taking proper care associated with the preservation of biodiversity in different forms. It is important because there must be something left for the future generation to look at. We as human beings should curb the degradation as well as the destruction of the habitats, upholding the biodiversity at its prime level.
Biodiversity conservation is basically aimed at protection, enhancement and scientific management of the biodiversity. To be precise, manage it at its threshold level and acquire sustainable benefits both for the present and future population. Biodiversity conservation has three prime objectives:
- Maintain crucial ecological processes as well as life support systems.
- Preserve the variety of species.
- Make sustainable exploitation of ecosystems and species.
Question For You
Q. What are the chief threats to biodiversity?
Ans: The major threats to the biodiversity at present are:
- Destruction of habitat
- Habitat fragmentation