In 2012, Haryana government lost 1.06 lac tonnes of wheat due to improper storage. This is enough grain to feed 1 lac families for 3 years. Crop wastage is a real problem that India faces. It occurs with frightening frequency and results in huge losses to the economy of the country. To safeguard against this farmers must protect their crops and employ techniques for storage of crops.
Storage of Crops
When crops are cultivated for commercial purposes, they are cultivated on a huge scale. We are talking about quintals upon quintals of grains and crops. So this presents us with a logistic problem of where and how to store these grains. It requires absolute planning and management so these grains can be stored without spoilage. Let us take a look at the steps to be taken for successful storage of crops/grains.
- Drying of grains: The crops have to be stored at the recommended level of moisture, which varies for different types of grains. Excess moisture in the crops promotes the growth of micro-organisms and can rot the crops and cause huge losses. Moisture may also germinate the stored seeds, which has to be avoided. Ineffective drying reduces the grain quality and causes huge losses.
- Storing: To protect the grains, they have to store in closed containers. On a small or medium scale, farmers store them in metal containers or jute bags. On a larger scale, silos or granaries are the preference. Storing in closed containers prevents moisture from re-entering, and protects against rodents and insects also.
- Insecticide Treatment: To prevent rodents and insects from attacking your stored crops, they have to be treated with insecticides and pesticides. The process of fumigation, where the granaries are filled with gaseous pesticides to suffocate the pests, may also be carried out. There are alternate bio-friendly pesticides such as dried neem leaves.
Browse more Topics under Crop Production And Management
- Soil Preparation and Sowing of Seeds
- Manure and Fertilizers
- Protecting and Harvesting of Crops
- Types of Crops
Learn Types of Crops here in detail.
Animal husbandry is the science of breeding, caring, rearing and overall management of farm animals. It includes the daily care and meticulous breeding and raising of livestock. Animal husbandry in the olden days was limited to cattle rearing of animals such as cow, ox, sheep, goats etc. But it has now expanded to poultry farming, apiculture (beekeeping), fisheries etc.
Now, it is the moral and the legal responsibility of animal owners to ensure their well-being and welfare of these animals. The management of this livestock is a big part of farm management. To keep up with the ever-rising standards, cattle management has become incredibly crucial. The two main important aspects of cattle management are sheltering the animals and feeding the animals.
An adequate shelter can improve the welfare of cattle. It helps minimize the effects of extreme weather conditions on the animals.
Learn some methods of Harvesting and Protection of crops here.
Food for Animals
So if you think feeding cattle is just about letting them go to pasture, you are mistaken. Cattle need to be fed food that fulfils their nutritional needs, so they can be their most productive on the farm. But when the farmer provides them with said food farming requirements must also be met.
- Firstly the farmer needs to assess the cattle and figure out their nutritional requirements.
- Rations of the feed have to be calculated according to the various types of cattle and their development stage,
- Constantly modifying the feeding pattern according to the weather conditions, the health of the animals and various other such factors.
- Cattle also need to be fed additional supplements and medicines to ensure the prime health of these animals, and protect them from diseases and encourage higher output.
Study manure and fertilizers here in detail.
Solved Example for You
Q: In animal husbandry, selective breeding is used for
- Increased population
- All of the above
Solution: The correct answer is option “b”. Animal husbandry is the practice of selectively breeding and raising livestock to promote desirable traits in animals for utility, sport, pleasure or research.