Vaccination and Immunization
Vaccination is an administration used to give vaccines i.e giving oral vaccines or injections to improve immune system development and fight against diseases.
Immunization is the process in which the individual immune system is improved to fight against the infected agents. This process includes both getting vaccinated and becoming immune to the disease. When an individual undergoes this process, the body produces an immune response. In the future, if this individual comes in contact with the disease, the body will be capable enough to make an immune response and prevent the person from developing a severe case of the disease.
Let’s know the detailed key difference between vaccination and immunization.
Difference between Vaccination and Immunization
Vaccines are used to artificially activate the immune system to protect against diseases. Some vaccines contain a very small dose of killing small parts of bacteria, some contain small doses to reduce the strength of bacteria, and other vaccines contain doses of modified toxins. This process gives priority to the immune system with an immunogen. Stimulating this immune response is known as Immunization.
Immunization is the process after vaccination, to make someone immune to fight diseases. Most people believe that taking a shot of the vaccine will make them immunized to kill microorganisms or treat infectious diseases. This belief is wrong, everyone’s immune system reacts differently.
The vaccine is a substance used to produce antibiotics and provide immunity against several diseases. It contains some amount of preservatives or some amount of antibiotics to preserve the vaccine for long. Some may contain aluminum salt to produce a better immune system. These vaccines are used to reduce the strength, kill bacteria, or remove toxins from the body.
Vaccination is the most important and effective method to prevent infection and several diseases. It’s responsible for the worldwide reduction of smallpox and diseases like polio and tetanus. Vaccines for more than 20 life-threatening diseases are available now and helping all age group people to live a healthy and longer life.
Types of Vaccines
The development of vaccines is decided according to which method works the best for several diseases and is more effective.
The theory behind the production of such vaccines is to educate the body and to improve the capability to fight the infection or virus. Some viruses multiply bacteria a thousand times and try to invade the body. Once these vaccines enter the body, it becomes difficult for the virus to reproduce. This type of vaccine introduces a live virus into the body. These vaccines are also known as the Attenuated vaccine.
Advantages of Attenuated Vaccines are –
- They help to improve the strength of the immune system as they are very close to the virus.
- It shows results within one or two doses.
- These vaccines can be easily created and defend the virus.
Weakening vaccines are used against the following viruses
- Yellow Fever
- Mumps, rubella, and measles
Inactive vaccines rely on a chemical or a pathogen and aims to completely stop the reproduction of the virus. The body will recognize the virus so it keeps producing the cells that protect against the virus.
Advantages of Inactive Vaccines
- Even a mild form of this vaccine is enough to stop the production of disease in the body.
- There is no requirement of a strong immune system for such vaccines.
Types of diseases treated by inactive vaccines include
- Hepatitis A
Subunit and Conjugate Vaccine
Subunit vaccines use only the essential part of the antigen like protein on the surface of the virus to produce the vaccine and leave everything else. This type of vaccine is used when only a specific part of the virus need to be treated to protect against the entire disease.
Some diseases treated by this type of vaccine are:
- Hepatitis B
- Meningococcal disease
- Whooping cough
According to WHO (World Health Organization) immunization saves millions of lives every year. Vaccines work with the body’s natural defenses and reduce the risk of getting diseases. Immunization protects more than 2-3 billion lives from tetanus, influenza, measles, diphtheria diseases.
Immunization takes almost 2 weeks to show complete results. Most of these are need to be used several times to keep the disease away and build long-lasting protection. One dose of vaccines like the meningococcal ACWY vaccine is enough for long-lasting protection against diseases. A child with a 1 or 2 dose of DTPA vaccine is not completely protected from the disease. In the future, if this child comes in contact with diseases like whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus he may get infected until all the doses are done.
Immunization never gives life long protection. Tetanus vaccine lasts for 30 years whereas, whooping cough immunization protects only around 5 years after full course. Influenza is the disease that infects every year due to changes in the types of flu viruses. Thus immunization is needed every year to stay away from such infections.
Immunization reacts differently for every individual, as everyone has different immunity. The National Network of Immunization information provides the fact that even after higher effective rates of vaccines, they are not completely effective for everyone who receives it. Tetanus, polio, Hib vaccines, rubella, mumps vaccines protect 95% of children with the dose. Three doses of whooping cough protect 85% of children.
Types of Immunization
The term active immunization defines how the body responds to a vaccine. This vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies which actively fight the virus or the bacteria. The individual should have a strong immunity to achieve the desired results.
Passive immunity carries the antibodies from outside the body. The substance such as immune globulin is transfer to protect from a certain disease. This protection takes place immediately as compared to active immunization which takes time to produce antibodies.