Microscope – Definition, Types, Uses, Parts

It is scientific equipment that magnifies very small objects that are not visible to the naked eyes. Furthermore, with the help of a microscope, we can see the various organism that we cannot see or study.


What is a Microscope?

It refers to an optical instrument that uses a lens or an arrangement of lenses to magnify an object. Also, they help to view different organisms. Furthermore, the light of a microscope helps to see microorganisms.

Types of Microscope

The scope is of various types. These are:

1. Compound Microscope

It is an instrument that has two lenses (set of two lenses) these lenses is objectives and ocular. Furthermore, they use visible light as a source of illumination.

2. Darkfield Microscope

These microscopes have a device that scatters light from the illuminator. In addition, it does this to make the specimen appear white against the black background.

3. Electron Microscope

It is a scope that instead of light uses a flow of electron to produce an image. Moreover, this microscope enhances the images of viruses, protein, lipids, ribosomes, and even small molecules.

4. Fluorescence Microscope

These scopes use ultraviolet light to illuminate specimens that fluoresce. Besides, mostly, a fluorescent antibody or dye is added on the viewed specimen.

5. Contrast/Phase Microscope

This scope uses a special condenser that allows the examination of structures inside the cells. Also, they use a compound light. Furthermore, these microscopes take advantage of different refractive indexes for the examination of live organisms.
In addition, the final image produced by these microscopes is a combination of light
and dark.

Uses of Microscope

They are used in different fields for different purposes. Some of their uses are tissue analysis, the examination of forensic evidence, to determine the health of the ecosystem, studying the role of protein within the cell, and the study of atomic structure.

Parts of Microscope

1. Arm

It is in the back of the microscope and supports the objectives and ocular. Also, it is the part that we use to carry or lift it.

2. Base

It’s the bottom of the scope. In addition, it houses the light source and the back section of base acts as a handle to carry the scope.

3. Course Focusing Knob

We use it to adjust the position of objective lenses. Also, this should be done keeping in mind that the objective should not hit the slide. In addition, it should be stopped when the object is completely visible through the ocular.

4. Fine Focusing Knob

We use it to bring the specimen in perfect focus once the specimen is visible through the course-focusing knob. Also, focus slowly to avoid contact between the objective and the specimen.

5. Illuminator

It is the light source of the microscope.

6. Numerical Aperture or Objective lens

It is found in a compound scope and is the lens that is closest to the specimen.

7. Ocular Lens

This is the lens closest to the viewer in a compound light microscope.

8. Oil immersion Lens

This is a 100x (100 times) objective lens. Also, this lens is small in order to attain high resolution and magnification. Furthermore, due to its size, it is important for the lens to get as much light as possible.

Moreover, by immersion of lens in oil it eliminates the refraction of light, it happens because the glass and oil have almost the same refractive index. Most noteworthy, in this way the light is maximized and gives the clearest image. Besides, It oil immersion lens is used without oil then the produced Image will become unclear and has a poor resolution.

Solved Question on Microscope

Question. Which of the flowing is not a common part of a microscope?

A. Arm
B. Oil Immersion Lens
C. Ocular lens
D. Focusing Knob

Answer. The correct answer is option B because it is a part of a compound microscope.

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