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Structural Organisation in Animals

Muscle Tissue

Muscle tissue is a tissue that helps in the contraction of muscles. Muscle tissue gives muscles the ability to contract, by applying forces to other body parts. Movement is one of the properties of Muscle tissues. This specialized tissue contains muscle cells’ fibers which are connected in fibers and sheets. Muscle tissues are located between two bones. And the contraction property of muscle tissues helps both bones to move smoothly.

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Muscle cells are also called as myocytes. They have myofibrils which are composed of actin and myosin myofilaments. There are three types of Muscle tissues: Skeletal Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, Smooth muscle. Smooth muscle cells do not have striations or stripes. Skeletal muscles have stripes or striations. And cardiac muscle is only found in the heart. Let us learn about the functions of Muscular tissue and their types in greater detail.

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Muscle Tissues

This is a tissue that helps in the movement of the various body parts. The muscular tissue is generally attached to the bones and thus helps in movement. Muscle cells are called the myocytes.

They have myofibrils which are composed of actin and myosin myofilaments. They slide past each other, which produces tension, thus changing the shape of the myocyte. In single muscle tissue, there are many myocytes present.

When the muscle fibers contract and relax, movement occurs. Contraction of the muscle fibers is in response to a stimulus.

Types of Muscle Tissue

  • Smooth Muscle
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Cardiac Muscle

Muscle TissueSmooth Muscle

These muscle cells do not have striations or stripes. Hence they are called smooth muscle cells. They are also called involuntary muscles. The cells have a single nucleus and the cells are spindle-shaped.

They are found in the walls of the hollow organs like the stomach, uterus etc. Their main function is to move the material through the body. The involuntary muscles are controlled by the brain.

Skeletal Muscle

The skeletal muscles have stripes or striations. Hence they are also called the striated muscles. These skeletal muscles are the most common and widely distributed muscle tissue in the body.

They make up around 40% of the total body mass. These muscles are voluntary muscles that are controlled by us.

They mainly help in the locomotion and are attached to the skeleton. The cells are long and cylindrical with many nuclei. The skeletal muscles can be found in the muscles of the limbs, face, neck etc.

Cardiac Muscle

This is a muscle that is found only in the heart. The rhythmic contractions of this muscle help in the pumping of blood through the blood vessels to various parts of the body. The brain controls this muscle and is an involuntary muscle.  The cells of this muscle tissue are branched and cylindrical with a single nucleus and striations present.

The cells of the cardiac muscle tissue are shorter than the skeletal muscle tissue. There are intercalated disks of overlapping cell membrane between the cardiac muscle cells. This helps the tissue to get locked tightly.

Further, this positioning allows the quick passage of electrochemical signals between cells. The cardiac muscle tissue has myofibrils and many mitochondria. This gives this tissue great strength and endurance to pump blood.

Solved Questions For You

Q: Mention the types of muscular tissue present in the different locations of the body.

Ans: The different muscles and their corresponding location in your body are as follows:

  • Blood vessels – Smooth muscle
  • Facial muscles – Skeletal Muscle
  • Stomach – Smooth Muscle
  • Urinary bladder – Smooth Muscle
  • Heart – Cardiac Muscle
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