Acetamide or acetic acid or ethanamide is an inorganic compound. Furthermore, the simplest amide derived from acetic acid that’s why it is slightly acidic in nature. Some of its uses are an industrial solvent and plasticizers. Moreover, on a pH scale then it has a higher pH reading than acetone. Learn acetamide formula here.
Acetamide Formula and Structure
The chemical formula of acetamide is C2H5NO or CH3CONH2. Moreover, its molar mass is 59.07 g/mol. The acetamide has a methyl group (-CH3) bound to a carbonyl (CO) and Amine (NH2). Besides, the acetamide primarily comprises of carboxylic acid amide functional group that has a general structure RC (=O) NH2.
Furthermore, the acetamide belongs to the family of primary carboxylic acid amides. Also, it exists in nature as a natural compound. However, its chemical structure is shown below:
Generally, the acetamide occurs in burning waste coal piles that form between 50 and 150oC (122-302oF). Also, it only appears in periods of dry weather. Furthermore, the scientist has detected its presence near the center of the Milky Way galaxy.
Also, this finding is potentially significant for amino acids in proteins. Moreover, this finding lends support to the theory that organic molecules that can lend to life can form in space.
Production of Acetamide
An excellent amount of acetamide produced through ammonolysis of acetylacetone under conditions commonly used in reductive amination.
Besides, anhydrous acetic acid is also used to produce it, acetonitrile and very well dried hydrogen chloride gas, using an ice bath, together with more valuable reagent acetyl chloride. Typically, this product is low (up to 35 percent), and the acetamide produced in this way is generated as a salt with HCl.
However, on the industrial scale, they use a similar method that scientists use. In industries, they produce acetamide by dehydrating ammonium acetate or via the hydration of acetonitrile a by-product of the production of acrylonitrile.
CH3CN + H2O → CH3C(O)NH2
Physical Properties of Acetamide
We can identify it in the field as transparent to translucent, colorless or gray variations. Also, it has a white streak. The density of acetamide is 1.17 g/cm3 and hardness of 1 to 1.5 roughly close to talc or a slightly harder substance. The melting point of acetamide is between 79 to 81oC, whereas its boiling point is 221.2oC.
Furthermore, its density is 1.159 g/cm3. Besides, it is soluble in water (2000 g L-1), ethanol (500 g L-1), pyridine (166.67 g L-1), chloroform, glycerol, hot benzene, slightly soluble in ether.
Chemical Properties of Acetamide
We find it as hygroscopic solid that is colorless and has a mousy odor which depends on its purity. Also, it has a bitter taste. Furthermore, it is a member of the class of acetamides which results from the formal condensation of acetic acid (CH3COOH) with ammonia (NH3). Most importantly, the carbonyl, methyl and anime groups share electrons with each other to form acetamide.
Mainly, it is used as a solvent for many inorganic and organic compounds and in explosives. Furthermore, industries use it as a plasticizer and hygroscopic agent. Also, they use it to manufacture methylamine and as a stabilizer. Besides, it can act as a penetrating agent and fire suppressant.
Health and safety hazard
It has low toxicity which causes a reduction in weight which only happens when exposed to a high oral dose. Also, it mildly irritates mucous membranes, eyes, and skin. Furthermore, its combustion generates toxic gases or fumes. It can cause damage to corneal. Repeated oral exposure over time can cause liver tumors and lymphoma.
Solved Example For You
Question: How scientists produce acetamide in laboratories?
In laboratories, scientists produce acetamide by hydration of ammonium acetate in this way.
[NH4][CH3CO2] → CH3C(O)NH2 + H2O