Copper (II) chloride is also referred to as Cupric Chloride. Further, it is an inorganic salt. Similarly, this salt is used as catalysts in chemical synthesis. Moreover, we also use Copper (II) chloride in manufacturing of pyrotechnics for the blue/green colour of this salt. The Copper II chloride formula will help us learn more about this inorganic salt.
Formula and Structure
The chemical formula for Copper II chloride is CuCl2. Similarly, the molar mass of this salt is 134.45 g mol-1. When we look at the dehydrated form of this salt, it has a molecular mass of 170.48 g mol-1. Moreover, the structure of this anhydrous salt consists of 1 cation Cu2+ and 2 anion Cl–.
The structure of Copper (II) chloride is a distorted octahedron with a copper cation bound to 6 chloride anions. Thus, in this dehydrated form, it forms by a Cu2+ centred atom, which is bounded by 2 water molecules and 2 chlorine anions Cl–.
In order to write the chemical structure of Copper (II) chloride, one can write it as given below, in the common representations used for organic molecules:
If we talk about the occurrence of Copper (II) chloride, these salts are present in a few rare minerals tolbachite and eriochalcite, in its anhydrous or dehydrated form. Similarly, it is commonly present in fumaroles.
In order to prepare Copper chloride, one needs to react to metallic copper along with chlorine:
Cu + Cl2 + 2 H2O → CuCl2
You may also obtain Copper (II) chloride by reacting copper (II) hydroxide or copper (II) carbonate with hydrochloric acid:
Cu (OH) 2 + 2HCl → CuCl2 + 2 H2O
When we look at Copper (II) chloride in its dehydrated form, it is blue-green in colour and quite solid. Similarly, when talking about Copper (II) chloride in anhydrous form, it is yellow-brown in colour and in solid form. The density of Copper (II) chloride is 3.38 and for the anhydrous form and 2.51 g mL-1 for its dehydrate forms.
The melting point of the anhydrous salt is 498 °C. Similarly, above 993 ºC the anhydrous salt decomposes. Copper (II) chloride is also said to be soluble in water, methanol, ethanol, and acetone.
Copper (II) chloride is a very versatile salt which can withstand a varied range of reactions. Therefore, one can easily use it in the chemical industry or chemical synthesis. Copper (II) chloride can suffer a redox reaction when a reductant is present. The formed compounds comprise of metallic copper or cuprous salt:
2 CuCl2 + SO2 + 2 H2O → 2 CuCl + 2 HCl + H 2SO4
With bases, copper (II) chloride can suffer a replacement to create copper (II) hydroxide:
CuCl2 + 2 NaOH → Cu (OH)2 + 2 NaCl
One can use Copper (II) chloride in the form of a catalyst along with other chloride salts as the palladium (II) chloride. One of the most common uses of it is in producing ethylene to acetaldehyde
C2H4 + PdCl2 + H2O → CH 3CHO + Pd + 2 HCl
Due to the blue/green colour of Copper (II) chloride, it has the most common use in the manufacture of pyrotechnics.
In high concentrations, Copper (II) chloride is very toxic. Similarly, it can also react with oxidizing agents. This compound is not flammable.
Solved Question for You
Question- What is the colour of Copper (II) chloride in its dehydrated form?
- a) Blue-green
- b) Yellow-brown
- c) Red-pink
- d) Green-yellow
Answer- The correct answer is option A. It is blue-green in dehydrated form.