Copper Sulfate is commonly referred to as Bluestone or Blue Vitriol. It is an inorganic salt which we use for dyeing, thus it works great as a dyeing agent. Similarly, it also plays the role of a catalyst in a few organic reactions. Mostly, it works as a fungicide for the treatment of fruits and vegetable diseases. Let’s take a look at the Copper Sulfate Formula given below.
Formula and Structure
The chemical formula for Copper Sulfate is CuSO4. Similarly, its molar mass is 159.60 g mol-1. Moreover, this compound is generally found as a hydrated salt with between 1 to 5 molecules of water. Therefore, the most common hydrated form of it is CuSO4.5 H2O.
Similarly, the pentahydrated form of Copper Sulfate has a molecular mass of 249.69 g mol-1. Further, if we talk about the structure, the anhydrous salt’s structure comprises of 1 cation Cu2+ and one anion SO42-.
Similarly, if we talk about the pentahydrated salt, it comprises a center which is a copper cation and it 4 water molecules surround it. The chemical structure of Copper Sulfate is presented below, in the common representations which are used for organic molecules:
Copper Sulfate occurs naturally in nature. It is commonly found as a natural pesticide. Similarly, it is present in plants, soils as well as water. But, always remember that we do not produce it in sufficient amounts in order to use it commercially.
Copper Sulfate can be prepared by the redox reaction of copper metal and concentrated sulphuric acid in high temperatures:
Cu + H2SO4 → CuSO4
The copper metal is oxidized to the cation Cu2+, within this reaction. Similarly, we can also prepare it by reacting copper with diluted sulphuric acid and air.
Copper Sulfate is essentially a white powder when in its anhydrous form. Similarly, in its pentahydrated form, it is in a blue crystalline solid form. The density of Copper Sulfate in anhydrous form is 3.60 g mL-1. and in its pentahydrate form is 2.28 g mL-1.
Similarly, the anhydrous salt’s melting point is 110 °C whereas it decomposes in the pentahydrate form. Similarly, the anhydrous salt decomposes above 520 ºC. If we talk about its solubility, it is soluble in water and methanol.
On the other hand, Copper Sulfate is insoluble in ethanol and acetone. In addition, the flame test for it produces a flame green in colour.
Copper Sulfate is a pretty toxic compound where the toxicity of it assists it in controlling fungi, parasite as well as bacteria. Similarly, the toxicity is so high that fishes and algae may not live in its presence.
Moreover, it also possesses qualities that help it to act as an oxidizing agent of sugars and proteins. Thus, this allows it to be useful in several tests such as Fehling’s solution, Benedict’s solution or Buriet reagent for decreasing sugars and proteins.
Copper Sulfate has the most common use in the form of a fungicide and a herbicide because of its toxicity. Further, it is beneficial in the treatment of fruits like melons and berries to control fungus and parasites.
Moreover, in organic synthesis, it acts as a dryer agent and as a catalyst in some reactions. Copper Sulfate is also used as a dye in some vistrals and paints.
If present in high concentrations, it can be very toxic to aquatic life. Copper Sulfate may produce toxic flames when mixed with chlorates. However, it is not injurious to humans in low concentrations.
Solved Question for You
Question- Copper Sulfate is commonly found as which of the following?
- a) Bleaching agent
- b) Salt
- c) Dyeing agent
- d) Natural Pesticide
Answer- The correct answer is option D.