Chemistry Formulas

Lithium Hydroxide Formula

Lithium Hydroxide

Lithium Hydroxide is an inorganic compound that has a white hygroscopic crystalline formation. Also, it is a strong base and the weakest known alkali metal hydroxide. Furthermore, we largely use it in organic synthesis to promote reaction due to strong basicity. Learn Lithium Hydroxide Formula here.

Lithium Hydroxide Formula and Structure

The chemical formula of lithium hydroxide it’s LiOH and its molar mass is 23.91 g/mol. Furthermore, it exists in two forms: An anhydrate form and a monohydrate form (\(LiOH \cdot H_{2}O\)) that has a molar mass of 41.96 g/mol.

Generally, it from a lithium cation \( Li^{+}\) and a hydroxyl group anion \(OH^{-}\). Moreover, it is the only alkali hydroxide that does not present polymorphism, and its lattice has a tetragonal structure. In common representation that we use for organic molecules we can write it structure as:

Lithium Hydroxide Formula

Occurrence of Lithium Hydroxide

We can’t find it freely in nature because it is highly reactive and in nature, it could easily react with other compounds to form other compounds. Besides, some lithium/aluminum hydroxides form diverse mixtures in minerals ores.

Preparation of Lithium Hydroxide

The maximum quantity of the lithium hydroxide is produced from the reaction between calcium hydroxide and lithium carbonate which produces lithium hydroxide and calcium carbonate:

\( Ca(OH) + Li_{2}CO_{3} \rightarrow CaCO_{3} + 2 LiOH \)

In laboratories, lithium hydroxide ascends by the reaction of lithium oxide with water. The chemical equation for this is a follows:

\( H_{2}O + Li_{2}O \rightarrow  2 LiOH \)

Physical Properties of Lithium Hydroxide

It is a white, hygroscopic solid with a pungent odor and it has a density of 1.46 g/mL. Moreover, the density of its anhydrous salt is 1.51 g/mL in the monohydrate form. The boiling point of lithium hydroxide is \( 924^{o}C \) and the melting point is \( 462^{o}C \). It is poorly soluble in water, ethanol, and methanol and is insoluble in isopropanol.

Chemical Properties of Lithium Hydroxide

In organic synthesis, it is very versatile like other alkalis hydroxides (Sodium hydroxide, Potassium hydroxide, rubidium hydroxide, and cesium hydroxide) because these stronger bases react easily. At room temperature, it may react with water and carbon dioxide.

Besides, it can react with many other metals such as gold, silver, copper, and platinum, so that it has been an important starting material in organometallic synthesis.

Uses of Lithium Hydroxide

We largely use it to produce soaps, greases and lubricating through the esterification of fat promoted by the LiOH basic character. In submarines, spacecraft, and in scrubbing equipment they use it to absorb carbon dioxide. Most importantly, recently, they developed and studied a new type of batteries consisting of lithium hydroxide.

Primarily, we use it to produce lubricant and a popular lithium grease thickener is lithium 12-hydroxy stearate that general-purpose lubricating grease because of its high resistance to water and usefulness at a range of temperatures.

Moreover, industries use it as a heat transfer medium and as a storage-battery electrolyte. Often industries use them in ceramics and some Portland cement formulations. In addition, we use isotopically enhanced lithium-7 to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion control.

Health and Safety Hazards of Lithium Hydroxide

Contact can cause serious damage to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Furthermore, it is extremely toxic if ingested, absorbed by skin or inhaled. It reacts violently with water and when we heat lithium hydroxide produces toxic fumes.

Solved Example for You

Question: Show the reaction of water with lithium?

Solution: The reaction of water with lithium produces lithium hydroxide. The reaction is as follows:

\( 2 H_{2}O + 2 Li \rightarrow 2 LiOH + H_{2} \)

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