Maleic Acid is the cis-isomer of butenedioic acid. And it may be a dicarboxylic acid and maybe a molecule with two carboxyl groups. It’s an organic salt or ester of acid. Also, it is conjugated to freebase compounds/drugs. To enhance the properties including stability, solubility, and dissolution rate, conjugation occurs. During this chapter, we’ll learn the maleic acid formula, its properties, and its applications.
Maleic Acid Formula
Its molar mass is 116.072 g·mol−1. The density of acid is 1.59 g/cm³. The freezing point of acid is 135 °C (275 °F; 408 K). It’s soluble in water and is combustible too. It’s an industrial staple for the assembly of glyoxylic acid. Both properties of acid are often explained on account of the hydrogen bonding. It takes place in acid at the expense of interactions. And it is not possible in acid for geometric reasons.
- Chemical Formula = C4H4O4 or HOOCCH=CHCOOH
- IUPAC name = (2Z)-But-2-enedioic acid
It plays the role of plant metabolite, an algal metabolite, and a mouse metabolite. It’s accustomed to make other chemicals and for dyeing and finishing present fibres. And it is that the cis isomer of butenedioic acid, whereas acid is that the trans isomer. The cis isomer is that the less stable one among the 2. The difference in heat of combustion is 22. 7 kJ/mol.
The freezing point of acid (135 °C) is additionally much less than that of acid (287 °C). Both properties of acid are often explained on account of the hydrogen bonding. It takes place in acid at the expense of interactions. And it isn’t possible in acid for geometric reasons. The maleate ion is that the ionized sort of acid.
Preparation and Industrial Applications of Maleic Acid
Preparation of acid and its anhydride in industry id through with the catalytic oxidation of benzene. It shows reactions typical of both olefins and carboxylic acids. In industry, acid springs by hydrolysis of maleic anhydride, the latter being produced by oxidation of benzene or butane.
We can also accustom it to form acid addition salts. It’s through with drugs to form them more stable. It can include nylon and zinc-coated metals.
Dehydration converts maleic anhydride. Also, it coverts to it by hydration, and to succinic acid by hydrogenation, conversion can be done. The reaction of thionyl chloride or phosphorus gives the maleic acid chloride. It is electrophilic and participates as a dienophile in a reaction.
Spontaneously interconversion of it and fumaric acid does not occur. Rotation around a carbon-carbon double bond is not energetically favourable here. However, the conversion of the cis isomer into the trans isomer is possible by photolysis. It occurs in the presence of a small amount of bromine.
Solved Examples for Maleic Acid Formula
Q 1] What is the Reaction and effect of maleic acid with sodium carbonate?
Solution – The reaction with magnesium and sodium carbonate, the (cis-form) maleic acid gave gas bubbles. It is faster than when they react with fumaric acid (trans-form). In fact, the reactions are acid-base reactions. The base acids react with sodium carbonate and magnesium ribbon respectively.