Mercury (II) chloride is the compound of mercury and chlorine. It’s a white crystalline solid. It’s a laboratory reagent and a molecular compound and is extremely toxic to humans. Mercury bichloride or mercury chloride are the other names of mercury (II) chloride. It’s an inorganic salt and utilized in many disinfectants and in photography materials. During this chapter, we’ll learn more about mercury (II) chloride formula, its properties, its chemical structure and uses.
Mercury (II) Chloride Formula
Chemical Mercury (II) Chloride Formula is HgCl2. The molar mass of mercury (II) Chloride is 251.72 g mol-1. Mercury (II) cation Hg+2 and a two chloride anions Cl-1 forms a molecule, which forms two ionic bonds. The crystal structure of Mercury (II) Chloride is orthorhombic. It’s odourless and its density is 5.43 g/cm3. Mercury (II) chloride is used to get rid of dithiane groups attached to a carbonyl during a umpolung reaction. The exploitation of this reaction is due to the high affinity of Hg2+ for anionic sulfur ligands. Stabilizing agents for chemicals and analytical samples is another use of mercury (II) chloride.
Mercury (II) chloride exists not as a salt composed of discrete ions. But it composes of linear triatomic molecules. Because of this, it’s having a tendency to sublime. Within the crystal, each mercury atom bonds to two chloride ligands with Hg—Cl distance of two .38 Å. Six more chlorides are more distant at 3.38 Å.Its solubility increases from 6% at 20 °C (68 °F) to 36% in 100 °C (212 °F). Within the presence of chloride ions, it dissolves to offer the tetrahedral coordination complex [HgCl4]2−.
Preparation of Mercury (II) Chloride
Direct preparation of mercury(II) chloride isn’t possible with the reaction of mercury with acid or chlorine. Instead, conversion of mercury to mercury(II) nitrate is completed by reacting it with conc. nitric acid. After this, it’s either calcinated to mercury(II) oxide then acid is added. While it’s possible to get mercury chloride by reacting the mercury(II) nitrate with acid. It’s best to avoid this because the reaction produces the dangerously corrosive and toxic nitrosyl chloride. Also, there’s a possibility of some mercury(II) nitrate be left unreacted.
Another route involves heating a mix of mercury(II) sulfate and common salt. HgCl2 is made as vapours, and sublimes, condensing inside the reaction vessel. This route is extremely dangerous because the HgCl2 vapours are extremely toxic. We obtain Mercury (II) chloride by the action of chlorine on mercury or on mercury(I) chloride. The addition of acid to a hot, concentrated solution of mercury(I) compounds like the nitrate produce mercury (II) chloride.
Hg2(NO3)2 + 4 HCl → 2 HgCl2 + 2 H2O + 2 NO2
Health Effects/Safety Hazards
Mercury (II) chloride is toxic by ingestion or inhalation. It’s fatal when in touch with skin and causes severe eye damage. Mercury (II) Chloride is additionally a suspected mutagenic agent. It also can cause fertility problems. Mercury (II) chloride is toxic to the aquatic environment. It’s not flammable but is incompatible with strong acids, ammonia, metallic salts, and carbonate.
Solved Examples for Mercury (II) Chloride Formula
Q] How mercury (II) chloride reacts with aqueous ammonia and writes its reaction.
Solution- Aqueous ammonia produces white amido salts . And its composition depends on the mercury(II) salt present within the solution:
These salts aren’t soluble in excess aqueous ammonia, but do dissolve in acids:
HgCl2(aq)+NH+4(aq) HgNH2Cl(s)+2H+(aq)+Cl−(aq) →HgCl2(aq)+NH4+(aq)