Do you agree that the d and f block elements are the lesser known elements of the periodic table as compared to the other elements? Yet they find their use in various industries. In this topic, we are going to learn about the numerous applications of d and f block elements. Let’s find out what they are.
Understanding the d and f block Elements
The d-block of the modern periodic table consists of elements of the groups 3 to 12 in which the orbitals consist of progressively in each of the four long periods. The elements constituting the f – block is those elements in which the 4 f and 5 f are progressively in the later of the two long periods.
These elements are actually formal members of the group three from which they have been taken out to form a separate f – block of the periodic table. The d – block elements acquire the name of transition elements as they represent a significant change in properties from highly electropositive s – block elements to the least electropositive p – block elements.
Learn more about D and F Block elements here in detail.
The transition metals are those elements which have filled incompletely d – subshells in their ground state or in any one of their oxidation state or in any compound form. Cu, Ag and Au are the most common transition metals because, in their commonly occurring states, they have partly filled d – subshells.
Zn, Cd and Hg of group 12 do not have partly filled d – subshell in their elementary state or commonly occurring oxidation state, and hence, are not considered as transition elements. However, being the end members their chemistry becomes understood with transition elements. The Electronic Configuration is ( n-1)d1-10 ns1-2
Applications of d and f Block Elements
Are there any applications of d and f block elements? Definitely, each of the elements in the d and f block, have a specific set of properties. This makes them useful for a variety of purposes. Over the years, scientists have studied and arrived at many such useful applications of d and f block elements. This makes them viable for use. Let’s start with the uses of d Block elements.
Uses of d Block Elements
The uses of the d block elements are:
- Iron and its amalgam, steel, are utilized broadly in the development industry.
- Titanium is as a part of the manufacture of airship and spaceship.
- Tungsten comes in use in making electrical fibres.
- Manganese dioxide comes in use as a part of dry battery cells.
- Zinc comes in use as the negative anode in fixed dry batteries.
- Niobium composites are perfect as a part of fly motors.
- Tantalum comes into use to make expository weights.
- Silver bromide comes into use as a part of photography.
- Many d- block or transition metals and their compounds find their use as impetuses in the chemical reactions.
- Palladium chloride comes into use in the Wacker process of oxidation of ethane to ethanol.
- Iron comes in use in the production of ammonia in Haber’s process.
- Ziegler-Natta, a complex of trimethyl aluminium and titanium tetrachloride come into use in the polymerisation of ethene to polythene.
Uses of f Block Elements
Some applications of the f block elements are:
- Lanthanide alloys (mischmetal) utilized for the creation of instrumental steels and heat resistance.
- Carbides, Borides, and nitrides of lanthanides come in use as refractories.
- Lanthanide oxides come in use in cleaning glass as abrasives.
- Thorium is a part of cancer treatment and glowing gas mantles.
- We utilize Uranium as an atomic fuel.
- Plutonium is a part of nuclear reactors and nuclear bombs.
Solved Question for You
Q: Discuss some of the properties of the d block elements.
Ans: The elements with a halfway filled d-subshell are d-block elements. They also go by the name ‘transition elements’ because they form a transition between metals and non-metals. The d and f block contains both metals and non-metals. The transition elements can be either regular transition elements or the non-typical transition elements. The d – block has three arrangements, each of ten elements.
These arrangements are described by the totally filled 3d, 4d, and 5d subshells and are named as 3d – (first series) which include Sc – Zn, 4d arrangement (second series) which includes Y-Cd and the 5d arrangement (third series) which includes La-Hg separately.
There is a deficient fourth series comprising of just three elements in particular Ac, Ku, and Ha. In these elements, the 6d subshell begins to fill at Ac. Out of these, elements like iron, cobalt and nickel are used in making magnets.