Electromagnetic Force

Hadron

We classify the particles by their mass and interactions. There are four basic interactions which govern the particle classification. Thus, they are a strong force, electromagnetic force, the weak force, and the gravitational force. Therefor, we see that Hadrons are the heaviest particles whereas leptons are lightest particles. Through this article, we will study about Hadron in detail in an understandable manner.

hadron

Introduction to Hadron

We define Hadron as the subatomic particle composed of quarks, gluons and anti-quarks. Further, they are the heaviest particles. It is made up of two or more quarks which the electromagnetic force holds together strongly.

Moreover, every individual quark possesses functional electric charges. These combine in such a manner that hadrons carry a net integer electric charge. The simple two ways are three quarks of different colours or a quark of one colour in addition to an antiquark which has a corresponding anticolour.

Therefore, we refer to Hadrons under the first arrangement as baryons and those under the second arrangement as mesons.

Different Types of Hadrons

Hadrons divide into two categories depending on the quarks. They are as follows:

  • Baryons: It is composed of three coloured quarks
  • Mesons: It is composed of 1 quark and 1 anti-quark

Difference between a Hadron and a Lepton

We will go through the difference between a hadron and lepton through this table:

Hardon Lepton
As per the classification of particles, we consider them to be the heaviest particles. As per the classification of particles, we consider them to be the lightest particles.
These particles subject to strong nuclear forces. These particles subject to weak nuclear forces.
These classify into two types which are baryons and mesons. These classify into three types which are the electron, muon, and tau.
Examples: Kaon, Proton, Neutron, Antiproton, and Antineutron. Examples: Electron, Neutron, and  Muon.

Properties of Hadron

1)The valence quarks determine the properties of hadrons. Moreover, the hadrons exhibit the following properties:

2)They carry no net colour charge even though the quarks carry a colour charge. Further, only a very small part of the mass of a hadron is due to the quarks in it, which is a strange thing about hadrons.

3)Similarly, protons are stable, and neutrons bound within the atomic nuclei are stable of the hadrons. Whereas, other hadrons get unstable under ordinary conditions.

4)Thus, we study hadron physic by colliding protons of heavy elements like that of lead and classifying the debris in the produced particle.

Baryon

The baryons are created with three valence quarks. Therefore, they are fermions, that is to say, they have odd half-integer spin because they comprise an odd number of quarks. As quarks possess baryon number B = 1/3, the baryon number B = 1. The best-known baryons are Proton and neutron.

Table of Baryon

Particle Symbol Rest mass MeV.c-2 Spin Lifetime
Proton p 938.3 1/2 Stable
Neutron n 939.6 1/2 920
Lambda Λ0 1115.6 1/2 2.6×10-10
Omega Ω 1672 3/2 0.82×10-10
Delta Δ0 1232 3/2 0.6×10-23

Mesons

Mesons are hadrons which comprise of a quark-antiquark pair. They are bosons that must possess some integral spin, i.e., o, 1, or -1 as the number of quarks would be even. Their baryon number B = 0. Instances of mesons that are the by-products of particle physics experiments include kaons and pions. Pions play a chief aspect in possessing atomic nuclei by making use of the residual strong force.

FAQ on Hadron

Question 1: What are the properties of hadron?

Answer 1: The valence quarks determine the properties of hadrons. They carry no net colour charge although the quarks carry a colour charge. Only a very small part of the mass of a hadron is due to the quarks in it, which is a bizarre thing about hadrons.

Question 2: What is Baryon?

Answer 2: The baryons are created with three valence quarks. Therefore, they are fermions, that is to say, they have odd half-integer spin because they comprise an odd number of quarks. As quarks possess baryon number B = 1/3, the baryon number B = 1. The best-known baryons are Proton and neutron.

Question 3: What are the different types of hadrons?

Answer 3: Hadrons divide into two categories depending on the quarks. Further, they are baryons and mesons. Baryons compose of three coloured quarks whereas mesons compose of 1 quark and 1 anti-quark.

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