Components of Foods

Essential Components and Deficiency Diseases

We often hear about people falling sick due to lack of nutrition. But what is nutrition and how does it help us stay healthy? What are deficiency diseases? Let’s find out more about the essential components and deficiency diseases.

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A diet is something that we consume in a day. Our body needs nutrients like minerals, vitamins, fats, carbs, proteins, and fiber to survive. But sometimes, some people don’t get all these nutrients due to various reasons. Deficiency diseases are caused due to lack of nutrients. Let’s find out more about such diseases.

Deficiency Diseases

Some of the deficiency diseases are as follows:

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Iron Deficiency Anemia is caused due to lack of iron in the body. The symptoms of anaemia are dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, fast heartbeats and pale skin.


Iodine in the body is essential for normal cell metabolism in the body and deficiency of iodine may cause Goitre. Goitre leads to enlarged thyroid glands causing hypothyroidism, poor growth and development of infants in childhood, cretinism and even mental retardation.


It occurs due to lack of protein and energy. The symptoms of Kwashiorkor are anorexia, an enlarged liver, irritability and ulcerating dermatoses.


Extremely low levels of Vitamin C or ascorbic acid in the body can cause scurvy. The effects of scurvy are Decaying of the skin and gums, abnormal formation of teeth and bones, delay or inability to heal wounds and bleeding.

Xerophthalmia or Night Blindness

Xerophthalmia or Night Blindness occurs to due to the poor growth, dryness, and keratinization of epithelial tissue or chronic eye infection. The cause of this disease is attributed to the deficiency of Vitamin A.


It happens due to lack of Vitamin D and calcium in the body. It leads to unhealthy, soft and brittle bones that are prone to fractures and defects in the spine structure.


Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients like proteins, vitamins, calories, carbs are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

Questions For You

Q1. What is a lemon is rich in?

  1. Proteins
  2. Carbohydrates
  3. Vitamin C
  4. Vitamin D

Sol: The correct option is option “c”. Lemons are scientifically known as Citrus limon and are among the world’s most popular citrus fruits. They are packed with numerous health benefiting nutrients. They contain zero saturated fats or cholesterol. Lemons are a great source of vitamin C and fiber and contain many plant compounds, minerals, and essential oils.

Q2. Which vitamin helps the body to take up the calcium for the development of the bones and the teeth?

  1. Vitamin A
  2. Vitamin B
  3. It is vitamin C
  4. Vitamin D

Sol: Vitamin D helps the body to take up the calcium for the development of the bones and the teeth. It helps strengthen bones and teeth by helping to efficiently absorb calcium and phosphate. Even if there is sufficient calcium in the body, it will go waste if there is a deficiency of vitamin D. Thus, the correct answer is option D.

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