The accounting records that are not maintained as per the double entry system but as per single entry are called Incomplete Records. Where the proprietor maintains incomplete records, he only prepares cash account, debtors account and creditors account properly. He maintains all other accounts in a haphazard manner or not maintains them at all. Thus, in this case, the ascertainment of profit and loss becomes too difficult.
Ascertainment of Profit and Loss
Every business firm needs to prepare the financial statements in order to ascertain the results of its financial operations. It needs to know whether the business is yielding profits or not and also it’s financial position at the end of the year. But, as the records of the entity are incomplete, for the ascertainment of Profit and Loss needs to prepare the following:
- Statement of Affairs at the beginning and at the end of the year using the Statement of Affairs or Net Worth Method.
- Trading and Profit and Loss A/c and Balance Sheet using the conversion method.
Browse more Topics under Accounts From Incomplete Records
- Meaning of Incomplete Records, Reasons for Incompleteness and Its Limitations
- Preparing Trading and Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet
Preparation of Statement of Affairs
It is a statement that shows all the assets on one side and all the liabilities on the other side. It is similar to the Balance Sheet. With the help of this statement, we find the capital employed which is the difference between the assets and liabilities.
We prepare the Statement of Affairs at the beginning of the year to ascertain the opening capital and at the end of the year to ascertain the closing capital. However, the items of assets and liabilities are ascertained from vouchers, physical count and other relevant documents.
Performa of Statement of Affairs
Statement of Affairs
As at ……..
|Bills Payable||Land and Building|
|Creditors||Plant and Machinery|
|Capital (balancing figure)||Debtors|
|Cash and Bank|
|Capital (balancing figure)|
Note: When the liabilities are more than assets, then the capital will have a debit balance.
Preparation of Statement of Profit or Loss
After ascertaining the opening and closing capital with the help of the Statement of Affairs, the next step is to prepare the Statement of Profit and Loss. The adjustments relating to the additional capital and drawings during the year are required to be made for the ascertainment of Profit and Loss
Performa of Statement of Profit or Loss
Statement of Profit or Loss
For the year ending……..
|Capital as at the end of the year||xx|
|Add: Drawings during the year||xx|
|Less: Additional capital introduced during the year||(xx)|
|Adjusted capital at the end of the year||xxx|
|Less: Capital as at the beginning of the year||(xx)|
|Profit or Loss made during the year||xxx|
The positive amount denotes profit while the negative amount denotes the loss.
Solved Example for You
Question: Kalpana runs a small boutique. She keeps her books on single entry basis. On 1st April 2017, her records disclose the following: Sewing Machines ₹50000, Building ₹250000, Stock ₹150000, Cash ₹40000, Bank ₹500000, Debtors ₹80000, Creditors ₹95000, outstanding wages ₹5000. On 31st March 2018 her position is as follows: Sewing Machines ₹60000, Building ₹250000, Stock ₹200000, Cash ₹60000, Bank ₹750000, Debtors ₹90000, Creditors ₹75000, outstanding wages ₹2000, advance from customers ₹50000. She introduced additional capital of ₹60000 and withdrew ₹10000 every month for her personal expenses. Calculate the profit for the year.
Solution: In the books of Kalpana
Statement of Affairs as on 1st April 2017
|Outstanding Wages||5000||Sewing Machines||50000|
|Capital (Bal. fig.)||970000||Stock||150000|
Statement of Affairs as on 31st March 2018
|Outstanding Wages||2000||Sewing Machines||60000|
|Advance from customers||50000||Stock||200000|
|Capital (Bal. fig.)||1283000||Cash||60000|
Statement of Profit or Loss (For the year ending 31st March 2018)
|Capital as at the end of the year||1283000|
|Add: Drawings during the year (10000 x 12)||120000|
|Less: Additional capital introduced during the year||(60000)|
|Adjusted capital at the end of the year||1343000|
|Less: Capital as at the beginning of the year||(970000)|
|Profit or Loss made during the year||373000|