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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Free PDF Download

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry 

The NCERT Solutions for class 12 Chemistry help you to solve the unsolved problems of the class 12 NCERT Chemistry book prescribed by the CBSE. The NCERT Solutions for class 12 Chemistry breaks the answers into detailed steps and explains the answer, which helps you to understand the pattern of questioning.

Chemistry is a subject in which you have to understand every aspect. So we have provided clear answers to even the hardest questions to make it easier for you to solve them in your examination which is prepared by our experts.

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ncert solutions for class 12 chemistry

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapterwise

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Chapterwise NCERT Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 – The Solid State

This chapter deals with crystalline and amorphous solids, imperfections in solids, unit cell.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 2 – Solutions

This chapter deals with types of solutions, properties, Raoult’s law, the concentration of solutions, vapor pressure of liquid solutions, abnormal molar masses, and colligative properties.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 3 – Electrochemistry

This chapter explains the electrochemical cell, galvanic cell, electrolytic cell, standard potential of the cell, Gibbs energy of cell reaction and its equilibrium constant, the Kohlrausch Law and its applications.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 4 – Chemical Kinetics

This chapter explains the rate of a reaction, factors affecting the rate of a reaction, integrated rate equation, Pseudo First Order reactions, temperature dependence on the rate of reaction and the collision theory of chemical reactions.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 5 – Surface Chemistry

This chapter explains the concept of emulsions, adsorption, isotherms, factors controlling the adsorption of gases and liquids, and catalysts and their role in industry, preparation, colloids, gel formation.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 6 – General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

In this, you will understand about the concentration of ores, the occurrence of metals, cleaning and extraction of crude metal from ores, thermodynamic and electrochemical principles of metallurgy, refining process, uses of aluminum, zinc, copper, and iron.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 7 – p Block Elements

This chapter explains Group 15,16 elements, oxides of Nitrogen, allotropes of Phosphorus, Oxoacids of Phosphorus,  simple oxides, allotropes of sulphur, chlorine, and other elements.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 8 – d and f Block Elements

In this chapter, you will learn properties of transition elements, colored ions and complex compounds, variation in sizes of transition elements, ionization enthalpies, magnetic properties, and oxidation states, electronic configuration of elements, chemical reactivity of the inner transition metals, oxidation states.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 9 – Coordination Compounds

In this chapter you will know Werner’s theory, Bonding in Coordination compounds, Nomenclature, Isomerism, and others.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

In this, you will learn the IUPAC nomenclature and preparations of Haloalkanes and Haloarenes, applications of organometallic reactions, stereochemistry, reaction mechanism, environmental effects of polyhalogen compounds.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 – Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

In this, you will learn the IUPAC nomenclature of alcohols, phenols and ethers, preparation and properties of alcohols, phenols, and ethers.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 12 – Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids

In this, you will learn the IUPAC nomenclature of Ketones, Aldehydes, and carboxylic acids and their preparation methods, physical properties and chemical reactions, structures, factors that affect the acidity of carboxylic acids.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 13 – Amines

This chapter teaches you the preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions of Amines, the methods to prepare diazonium salts, the importance of diazonium salts in the synthesis of Aromatic Compounds.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 14 – Biomolecules

In this chapter, you will learn about glucose, fructose, starch, etc., classification of carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and vitamins on the basis of their structures, characteristics of biomolecules, differences between DNA and RNA, the role of biomolecules in the bio-system.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 15 – Polymers

This chapter explains types of polymers, polymerization, classification of Polymers based on their source, structure, mode of polymerization, and polymers of commercial importance and their properties, applications.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life

In this chapter, you will learn drugs and their classifications, drug Target Interaction, therapeutic Action of drugs, chemicals in food, cleansing agents.

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Solved Questions For You:

Question 1. To what extent do the electronic configurations decide the stability of oxidation states in the first series of the transition elements? Illustrate your answer with examples.

Answer: When d orbitals are half-filled or completely filled, the oxidation state is more stable. Thus, Mn (Z=25) has an electronic configuration .   oxidation state is most stable as it has a stable electronic configuration (half-filled 3d orbital). Also, Zn (Z = 30) has an electronic configuration .   oxidation state is most stable as it has a stable electronic configuration (completely filled 3d orbital).

Question 2. What makes a glass different from a solid such as quartz? Under what conditions could quartz be converted into glass?

Answer: Quartz is crystalline solid with long-range order and glass is amorphous solid (or pseudo solid or supercooled liquid) with short-range order and has a tendency to flow. When quartz is heated, it can be converted into glass.

Question 3. Define the term ‘amorphous’. Give a few examples of amorphous solids.

Answer: Amorphous solids have short-range order with irregular shapes of constituent particles.

They have isotropic nature and melt over a range of temperature. They are sometimes called pseudo solids or supercooled liquids. They do not have a definite enthalpy of fusion. Examples of amorphous solids are glass, rubber and plastic.

Question 4. Explain the following terms with suitable examples:

(i) Schottky defect (ii) Frenkel defect (iii) Interstitials and (iv) F-centres

Answer: 

(i) Schottky defect
Some atoms or ions are missing from their normal lattice sites. Unoccupied lattice sites are called vacancies or holes.
For example, in the crystal lattice of NaCl, an equal number of cations and anions are missing to maintain electrical neutrality.
(ii) Frenkel defect
An ion is missing from its normal position and occupies an interstitial site.
Due to this, vacancy defect and interstitial defect are produced.
For example, in the crystal lattice of ZnS, a zinc cation is missing from its normal position and occupies an interstitial site.
(iii) Interstitials
They are sites between lattice points.
For example, in Frenkel defect, the occupancy of interstitials cause an interstitial defect.
(iv) F-centres
The electrons trapped in anion vacancies are called F-centres. They impart colour to crystal.
For example, in NaCl crystal, F-centres impart yellow colour.

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