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Election, Political Parties and National Terms

Election and Political Parties

What is a political party? You must have read newspaper articles discussing elections in the country.  There are multiple articles describing various facets of elections. These articles, in addition, also describe the election process and the political parties contesting the elections. Let us familiarize ourselves with the concepts of elections, political parties, and national terms.

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What is an Election?

In a democracy, the people of the country select the governing body of the nation. This process of selection of a nation’s representatives is known as an election.  It also involves casting votes in favour of the person or group and the one with the majority votes forms the government at the state or national level.

The citizens of a nation are the only ones who can vote in the process of elections to select their representatives or leaders. In this process, the citizens exercise their right to vote. This right is the basis of all democracies.

What is a Political Party?

what is a political party

A political party consists of a group of people who join hands to contest the elections in a country. These parties have a shared vision for the country. This vision in addition to defining the party also guides their actions and the policies formulated for the citizens of the country.

These parties in addition to other activities also promote their policies and try to convince citizens to vote for them. They aim at winning the elections, so they can implement their policies after getting selected. Functions of a political party are:

  • Contesting elections
  • Formulating policies
  • Forming government or forming the opposition party
  • Shaping public perception.

Common Election, Political Parties and National Terms

Election Commission of India

The Election Commission of India is the authority responsible to ensure that all election processes conducted in the country are fair in nature. This body in addition to others was created according to the guidelines of the Constitution of India. And the Constitution provides guidelines according to which this body must act.

Lok Sabha

Lok Sabha is the lower house of the Parliament. People are directly involved in the election and selection of representatives to this house. The number of members in the Lok Sabha is 552. This includes 530 from states as well as 20 from union territories.

Rajya Sabha

The Rajya Sabha, also the upper house of the Parliament, has a maximum of 250 members. The members, also known as theMembers of Parliament (MP) are indirectly elected. This furthermore, is in proportion to the population of states. Moreover, the distribution of members is such that the smaller states have a comparative advantage in representation over the more populous states. It is a representative body of the states in the Union legislature.

President

The members of both houses of parliament in addition to the Legislative Assemblies of States and the Union Territories of Delhi and Pondicherry elect the President of India. Also, The President holds the office for a term of five years from the date on which he takes the responsibilities of the positions.

Prime Minister

The party with majority seats in Lok Sabha selects the Prime Minister of India. In addition to this, the Prime Minister is also the chief adviser to the President and head of the Cabinet of Ministers. The Prime Minister selects a cabinet of ministers and can also remove them from their posts.

Solved Question for You

Q: In India, the Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from his office in the same manner and on the same grounds as _________

  1. The Judge of the Supreme Court
  2. Chief Justice of India
  3. Prime Minister
  4. None of the above

Ans: The correct option is “A”. To remove the Chief Election Commissioner is a long and justifiably hard process. All the steps that would be taken to remove a judge at the Supreme Court level must be taken to remove him from office.

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