Properties are the traits that allow us to differentiate one material from another. The matter is a physical substance that takes up space, has mass, is made up of atoms, and can be converted into energy. In this article, we will look at the various properties of matter, the importance of the properties of matter and how these properties of matter are defined and calculated.
What is Matter?
Matter is defined as anything that has weight and occupies space by having volume. Matter makes up everything you can see and touch. There are three types of matter: solids, liquids, and gases. It also possesses qualities that may be described using terms like density, solubility, conductivity, magnetism, and so on.
Solids are matters with a definite shape and consistent volume. A few examples of solids are brick, rock, wood, gold, etc. Liquids are a sort of matter that can change shape based on their container. Water, milk, and blood are examples of liquids. A gas is defined as a matter that spreads out to take up all of the available space in a container. Gases include oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, helium, etc.
Intensive and Extensive Properties of Matter
The physical and chemical properties of matter are either extensive or intensive.
- Intensive properties of matter
Intensive properties are those that are unaffected by the amount of matter present in any sample. The intensity of a property is determined by the amount of substance present. Intense properties include pressure, temperature, colour, density, boiling point, melting point, and so on. For instance, if we boil 3L of water and 5L of water, their boiling points will be the same.
- Extensive properties of matter
Extensive properties are those that are affected by the amount of matter contained in a given sample. These extensive qualities, including mass, weight, and volume, are directly dependent on and vary in value with the amount of the substance. The mass and volume of an object, for example, are determined by the amount of matter. If we add 2L of milk to 3L of milk, the volume will increase to 5L and the mass will increase as well.
Physical Properties of Matter
A physical characteristic, such as mass, colour, or volume, is an attribute of matter that can be measured without changing the chemical composition of the sample under examination. Physical qualities are unaffected by chemical composition.
There are six significant physical properties. Colour, density, volume, mass, boiling temperature, and melting point are the six main physical properties. Shape, size, hardness, flexibility, texture, odour, temperature, volume, length, freezing point, electrical conductivity, and so on are some further examples.
Chemical Properties of Matter
Chemical properties are those that can only be changed by changing the molecular structure or chemical composition of a substance. A chemical attribute is an ability or inability to transform one type of matter into another. Chemical properties include flammability, toxicity, acidity, numerous types of reactivity, and heat of combustion. Chemical reactions are often irreversible. For example, when the wood is burned, it undergoes chemical transformation and turns into ashes. Ashes cannot be converted back to wood.
Thermal Properties of Matter
Thermal qualities are those that are connected to how a thing reacts when exposed to heat. In layman’s terms, it refers to the heat conductivity of a material. There are four major components to matter’s thermal properties:
Heat capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature by one degree.
Thermal expansion is the change in form of substance caused by the application of heat.
Thermal conductivity is the property that allows heat to travel through matter.
A Thermal stress occurs when heat causes matter to expand or converge, resulting in the formation of some type of stress.
Physical and Chemical Changes
Physical changes have no effect on the chemical bonding of the components and do not result in the production of new bonds. This means that the same types of compounds or components that existed at the start of the transition are still present at the conclusion. When the wax melts, sugar dissolves in coffee, or steam condenses into liquid water, we see a physical change. In each of these cases, the substance’s physical state, form, or qualities change, but its chemical composition remains unchanged.
Chemical changes result in molecular structural changes. These chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are generated during a chemical transition. Chemical changes are sometimes more difficult to undo than physical alterations. Rust creation is a chemical change because rust is a different type of substance than the iron, oxygen, and water that existed prior to the development of rust. Other examples of chemical changes include laboratory reactions (such as copper reacting with nitric acid), all forms of combustion (burning), fruit ripening, and food cooking, digesting, or rotting.
Frequently Asked Questions on Properties of Matter
Q1. What are the properties of matter? Why are they important?
Answer. The features that can be measured are referred to as matter properties. Chemical qualities such as flammability, corrosiveness, and acidity are examples, as are physical properties such as colour, texture, and flexibility. These characteristics distinguish one substance from another. The more we understand about diverse substances and topics, the better we will be able to use them.
Q2. Why is it vital for scientists to understand the intensive properties of matter?
Answer. The amount of a chemical has no bearing on its intense qualities. Color, electrical conductivity, melting and boiling points are all examples of intense qualities that do not alter with the amount of matter present. As a result, they determine the identity of the material, and scientists conduct extensive research on its qualities to learn more about it.
Q3. Demonstrate that melting wax is a physical change.
Answer. Wax melting is a physical change. It is justifiable in the below ways:
Even after melting, the chemical properties of wax remain unchanged. When the liquid wax cools, it solidifies once more. After the wax is melted, no new substance is generated.