Operating System

Commonly Used Operating System

Some common operating system which is used today are windows, android, macOS, etc. Before knowing about the common operating system let us study the operating system.

Operating System

An operating system (OS) is a program that acts as an interface between the system hardware and the user. Moreover, it handles all the interactions between the software and the hardware.

All the working of a computer system depends on the OS at the base level. Further, it performs all the functions like handling memory, processes, the interaction between hardware and software, etc. Now, let us study some common operating systems.

Common Operating System

The various common operating systems are as follows:

1. Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is one of the most common graphical OS. It is developed and marketed by Microsoft. Its common name is windows or win. The current version of Microsoft Windows is Windows 10. Moreover, it has several earlier versions like Windows XP, Windows 8, Windows 7, etc. Besides, the most common editions for home computers are Windows Home (Win Home) and Windows Professional (Win Pro or Windows Pro).

The first version of Microsoft Windows was released in 1985. Do you know why the name for this OS is Microsoft Windows? This is because, earlier, windows used the command line operating system, MS-DOS. Since the graphical version consists of windows. Moreover, these windows help the user to perform multiple tasks. Hence, the name Microsoft Windows.

Windows 10


  • Almost all the hardware systems today are compatible with Microsoft Windows.
  • It has a wide variety of pre-loaded software and applications.
  • Moreover, it is quite easy to use.
  • Also, it contains a wide variety of games.


  • It is quite expensive.
  • It has many security threats. Furthermore, it is quite vulnerable to viruses.

2. Linux

Linux is a popular operating system. It is not a part of any particular firm or organization. Rather, it was developed by a programmer Linus Torvalds in 1991. It is an open-source operating system. Moreover, Today, LINUX is run in many organizations, private offices, on mobiles, supercomputers, over the internet, etc. Therefore, we can say that it is one of the most popular OS today.

It already contains almost all the features of UNIX OS. Moreover, it also has some additional features. Moreover, It contains a variety of user interfaces like GNOME, KDE, Mate, Cinnamon, etc. In addition to this, it has several versions of distributions as follows UBUNTU, DEBIAN, SOLAS, LINUX MINT, etc.


  • It is an open-source operating system available free of cost.
  • LINUX is very secure.
  • It has high compatibility and flexibility.


  • It has many versions that create confusion.
  • It is not a good OS for gamers. Since it lacks high

3. Android

It is one of the most common versions of the operating system today. It is basically used on mobile phones and tablets. Most versions of it are an open-source OS.

They have an inbuilt media and application store which is the playstore.


4. Apple iOS

After android, it is one of the most popular OS. It is designed to run on Apple devices such as iPhones, iPad tablets, etc. Moreover, like the android devices have the playstore for apps download. Likewise, apple iOS contains the app store. Also, it has very strong security features.


5. Apple macOS

It is the operating system used in Apple laptops and Apple desktops. Moreover, Its most popular features are Siri which is a virtual assistant, and FaceTime which is a video calling app.

6. Solaris

Solaris is a type of UNIX  operating system. Moreover, Sun Microsystems developed it. Moreover, its most important feature is scalability. Furthermore, other unique features are DTrace, ZFS, and Time Slider.

OpenSolaris is the open-source version of Solaris.

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  • It has a good and high performance.
  • Complete protection from viruses and malware.
  • It is a multitasking OS.


  • The updates are not free of cost.
  • It is not user friendly.

Functions of OS

An operating system performs various tasks. Let us study them. Several functions of OS are:

1. Memory Management

It is the management of the main or primary memory. Furthermore, whatever program is executed, it has to be present in the main memory. Therefore, there can be more than one program present at a time. Hence, it is required to manage the memory.

The operating system:

  • Allocates and deallocates the memory.
  • Keeps a record of which part of primary memory is used by whom and how much.
  • Distributes the memory while multiprocessing.

2. Processor Management/Scheduling

When more than one process runs on the system the OS decides how and when a process will use the CPU. Hence, the name is also CPU Scheduling. The OS:

  • Allocates and deallocates processor to the processes.
  • Keeps record of CPU status.

3. Device Management

The processes may require devices for their use. This management is done by the OS. The OS:

  • Allocates and deallocates devices to different processes.
  • keep records of the devices.
  • Decides which process can use which device for how much time.

4. File Management

The files on a system are stored in different directories. The OS:

  • keeps records of the status and locations of files.
  • Allocates and deallocates resources.

5. Security

The OS keeps the system and programs safe and secure through authentication. A user id and password decide the authenticity of the user.

6. Other Functions

Some other functions of the OS can be:

  • Error detection.
  • keeping a record of system performance.
  • Communication between different software etc.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q1. What is an operating system?

A1. An operating system (OS) is a program that acts as an interface between the system hardware and the user. Moreover, it handles all the interactions between the software and the hardware.

Q2. What is a kernel?

A2. A kernel is the core/heart of an OS. It contains all the functions and operations to manage the working of OS.

Q3. List types of OS.

A3. Major types of OS are:

  • Simple Batch OS
  • Multitasking/Time-shared OS
  • Distributed OS
  • Network OS
  • Real-Time OS

Q4. List some common operating system.

A4. Some common operating system is as follows:

  • Microsoft Windows
  • Linux
  • Android
  • Apple iOS
  • Apple macOS
  • Solaris

Q5. List the functions of OS.

A5. Functions of OS are as follows:

  • Memory Management
  • Process Management/CPU Scheduling
  • Device Management
  • File Management
  • Security
  • Error detection etc.
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