The Factories Act

Safety Measures in Factories Act

Who doesn’t want to be safe? Be it physical safety, social safety, financial safety, or any other kind of safety measures, everyone wants to be safe. People working in different sectors have their specific kind of safety needs. For example, people working in the Corporate sector with a fixed desk job may not prefer physical safety and prefer financial safety as he is not subject to any physical danger during the work.

In the case of factory workers, physical safety plays an important role as they are subject to physical threats during the work. So, it becomes necessary for the law to mention certain fixed safety measures for the workers. Under this article, we will look at the safety measures under the Factories Act, 1948.

Safety Measures

Safety Measures (Under the Factories Act, 1948)

Section 21: Fencing the Machinery

This section states that the factory should fence the following machinery or substantial construction and maintain them in the right position:

(a) every moving part of a prime-mover and every flywheel, whether the prime-mover or flywheel is in the engine-house or not.
(b) the headrace and tailrace of every water-wheel and water-turbine.
(c) any part of a stock bar which projects beyond the headstock of a lathe.
(d) every part of an electric generator, a motor or rotary converter.
(e) every part of transmission machinery.
(f) every dangerous part of any other machinery.

Browse more Topics under The Factories Act

Special Point:

The State Government may by rules prescribe such further precautions as it may consider necessary in respect of any particular machinery or part thereof or exempt, subject to such condition as may be prescribed, for securing the safety of the workers, any particular machinery or part thereof from the Provisions of this section.

Read more about Health Measures and Safety Provisions here in detail

Section 22: Work on or Near Machinery in Motion

This section states:

(a) Firstly, whenever machinery is in motion and it becomes necessary to do the inspection, lubrication, repairs, etc., the factory should appoint a specially trained expert man, wearing tight-fitting clothes to do the job.
Moreover, such worker shall not handle a belt at a moving pulley unless:

1. the belt is not more than fifteen centimeters in width
2. the belt, including the joint and the pulley rim, is in good repair
3. there is reasonable clearance between the pulley and any fixed plant or structure
4.  the pulley is normally for the purpose of the drive

(b) Secondly, the factory owners should not allow any woman or young person to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of a prime-mover or of any transmission machinery while prime-mover or transmission machinery is in motion.

Section 23: Employment on Dangerous Machines

This section states that the factory owners or managers cannot allow any worker to work any machine without instructing him/her about the dangerous outcomes and the relevant precautions. Moreover, before the appointment, the manager has to see that the worker has relevant skills and knowledge to work on the machinery.

Section 24: Devices for Cutting off Power

This section states:

(a) In every factory, there should be suitable devices for cutting off power in emergencies from running machinery in all the workrooms. In the case of factories which do not belong to this Act have to just do the arrangements in the workroom in which electricity is used to generate power.
(b) The factory should provide and maintain suitable striking gear or other efficient mechanical appliance to move driving belts.
(c) Driving belts when not in use shall not be allowed to rest.

Section 25: Self-Acting Machinery

This section states that no factory should allow any traversing part of a self-acting machine in any factory to run within a distance of forty-five centimeters from any fixed structure which is not part of the machine.

Section 26: Casing of New Machinery

In all machinery driven by power and installed in any factory after the commencement of this Act,-

(a) every set screw, bolt or key on any revolving shaft, spindle, wheel  shall be so sunk, encased or otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger;
(b) all spur, worm and other toothed or friction gearing which does not require frequent adjustment while in motion shall be completely encased, unless it is so situated as to be as safe as it would be if it were completely encased.

Special Point:

The State Government may make rules specifying further safeguards to be provided in respect of any other dangerous part of any particular machine or class or description of machines.

Section 27: Prohibition of Employment of Women and Children Near Cotton-Openers

This section states that the factory should not employ any woman or child in any part of a factory for pressing cotton in which a cotton-opener is at work.

Solved Question For You

Question: What does section 27 prohibit according to the Factories Act, 1948

Answer: Section 27 states that the factory should not employ any woman or child in any part of a factory for pressing cotton in which a cotton-opener is at work.

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