In physics or chemistry, there is anything which contains or have mass are called matter. Matters Are classified in 3 forms these are solids, liquids and gases. These substances are classified according to the properties of fluids. In general, we can also say that liquids and gases are fluids. Fluids are the substance which can flow or which have a tendency to flow.
Definition of Fluids
A substance which is capable of flowing and deform continuously under the shared stress. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquid and gases. Fluids is a substance which deforms continuously under action of external force. These are the substance which cannot resist the shear force ( force causing the change in shape) applied to them. Air, water, toothpaste, molten lava etc. A fluid flows under the action of force or pressure.
The study of fluids can be into 2 parts. These are as follows:
1)Fluids statics– It is the mechanism of fluids at rest or non-motion and the pressure in fluids exerted by fluids on anybody.
2)Fluids dynamic -Fluids dynamics mechanism of fluids that describe the flow of fluids at motion. It has several parts or we can say several areas including aerodynamics which is the study of air and other gases in motion and one is hydrodynamics which can be expressed as the study of liquid in motion.
Fluids flow is the flow of substances that do not permanently resist distortion
Properties of Fluids
- Density–Density of a fluid is the mass of the fluid per unit volume. Mathematically it is the ratio of the mass to the volume of the fluids.
- Specific weight-It is the weight of fluids per unit volume. Mathematically, it is the ratio of the weight to the volume of the fluids.
- Specific gravity– Specific gravity is the ratio of specific weight or mass density of fluids to the specific weight or mass density of the standard fluids. In the case of liquid standard, fluids are water whereas in the case of gases standard fluids are air.
- Specific volume-Specific volume of fluid is the volume of fluid per unit weight. It is the reciprocal of weight density. it’s SI unit is cubic metre per Newton in case of gas flow specific volume is defined as the volume of fluids per unit mass. In this case, it is reciprocal of mind mass density and its SI unit are metre cube per kilogram.
- Viscosity-It is the resistance offered to a layer of fluids when it moves over another layer of fluids.
- Surface tension-It is a tensile force acting on the surface of a liquid in contact with air or between 2 liquids.
- A fluid whose density does not change with change in pressure is incompressible.
- Fluids do not oppose deformation and have the ability to take shape of the container.
- Hydrostatic is the branch of physics which deal with properties of fluids in hydrostatic.
- The normal force exerted by fluids per unit surface area of contact is called pressure of fluids. Mathematically, it is the ratio of force to area.
- Atmospheric pressure at any point is equal to the weight of a vertical column of air of unit cross-sectional area starting from that point of extended to the top of earth atmosphere.
- Atmospheric pressure is maximum on the surface of the earth therefore at sea level and goes on decreasing as we go above the earth atmosphere.
- There are 2 types of intermolecular forces. One is the cohesive force which is the force of attraction between molecules of the same substances. While the second one is the adhesive force which is the force of attraction between molecules of a different substance.
From the above discussion, we can conclude that flutes are anything which can flow or deform. There are many physical or chemical properties of fluids are there for example density, specific weight, surface tension, viscosity and specific volume.
FAQs about Properties of Fluids
Q.1. What is atmospheric pressure?
Answer. The pressure exerted by the atmosphere at a certain point comprises atmospheric pressure. It is the total weight of the gaseous mass at any given place and time. Atmospheric pressure is held due to the gravitational pull of the earth.
Q.2. What is surface tension?
Answer. Surface tension is the tensile force acting on the surface of a liquid in contact with gas or on the surface between 2 immiscible liquids such that the contact surface behaves like a membrane under tension. Surface tension is different for different liquids.