Water Pollution is one of the primary concerns of India. With the drastic reduction in the availability of usable water worldwide, it is a dangerous scenario. There are various kinds of pollution but water pollution is a major concern as it is directly related to the health and wealth of the nation. Further, agricultural waste, unthreatened sewage, solid untreated waste, and small scale industries are major causes of water pollution. The groundwater and surface water that was fit for drinking is getting polluted by sewage. Thus, water pollution in India is increasing at a great rate. Let us discuss.
Introduction to Water pollution in India
Water pollution is the discharge of pollutants indirectly or directly in water bodies. The pollutant can vary from sewage of houses to organic waste, toxic chemicals of factories discharged in water. However, the organic wastes from the homes are less harmful as compared to industries discharge. In addition, the organic waste created by human beings greatly affects water health. Thus, we will be discussing the pollution in the river Ganga, the largest freshwater distributor of India.
As you know the perennial source of the water of River Ganga is, the Gangotri glacier in the Himalayas. It holds religious importance for Hindus in addition to offering a constant supply of usable water to North India across eleven states. Moreover, the pressure of the river Ganga is high. The pressure has become quite slow over years. The pressure has become slow due to water pollution in the river.
Causes of Water Pollution in India
Water Pollution happens due to the following reasons:
Around 500 million people are living around the river Ganga. Moreover, the sewage from all these houses gets dumped in the river. The chemicals like soaps and detergents, human excreta create pollution.
Many industrial cities like Allahabad, Kanpur, and Varanasi lie on the bank of the river. The various factories like chemical plants, tanneries, distillery, chemical plants, hospitals, and slaughterhouses are situated on the river bank. The people dump effluents and add water pollution. Further, industrial wastes are in less quantity when we compare it to human waste but industrial wastes are harmful than human waste. Industrial waste contains non-biodegradable toxic substances and harmful chemicals.
The dip in holy water washes away all sins. Hence, a large number of people collect on the banks at the time of the festival. Also, individuals consider that dying by the river is a small way to heaven. Thus, you can observe dead bodies floating on the water.
The Pumping Station and Dams
The human population is growing and is not going to stop. Further, the population needs food and to feed them various irrigation pumping stations and dams are constructed. These dams decrease downstream flow influencing upstream and downstream. You can see the negative effect of dams on the ever-decreasing pollution of dolphins.
Some of the major mining belts are located near River Ganga. Underground mining requires a wide range of heavy-duty complex refining system. Water is an essential requirement for the mining refineries. Moreover, the large volume of harmful metalloid and remnant mixed water is ejected out of these mining pits into the river causing increased metal dumping
Similar to the mining industry radioactive waste from Nuclear plants Pharmaceutical research labs are all dumped into the river. Thus, it causes a massive spree of pollutants to be dissolved into the usable water unknown to most.
Effects of Water Pollution in India
Some of the most drastic effects of Water Pollution in India include:
- Increased infantile mortality
- Increased malignancy and breathing ailments in adults
- Mass extinction of flora and fauna
- Increased carbon emission
- Global warming
- Water scarcity
Save Yamuna Initiative
The Yamuna is the main tributary of Ganga and does not have any lifelike fish in Yamuna water. However, the pollution in the river Ganga is not going to become less until we take certain measures. Consequently, the population will enhance and issues will keep enhancing. Therefore, we must implement certain strict methods.
FAQ on Water Pollution in India
Question 1: What are the 3 causes of Water Pollution in India?
Answer 1: The three causes are:
- Industrial Waste
- Chemical fertilizers and pesticides
- Human waste
Question 2: What are the 3 effects of Water Pollution in India?
Answer 2: The three effects are:
- Increased congenital defects and infantile mortality
- Mass destruction of biodiversity. Eg. -Extinction of Sundarban Mangroves
- Rise of infection and disease
Question 3: Name a few diseases caused due to Water Pollution in India?
Answer 3: Dysentry, Cholera, Trachoma are a few of the water-borne diseases which happen due to pollution of potable water.