Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organisations

Income and Expenditure Account


The role of a non-trading firm is to provide services to its members. However, in order to do the same, it needs to earn some revenue and incur certain expenditures. When a non-profit firm does so, it needs to prepare an income and expenditure account, which can help it in ascertaining the surplus earned or deficiency incurred during a period. Let us understand more about the income and expenditure account which is prepared by a non-profit organization.

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Income and Expenditure Account

Income and Expenditure Account Format

The Income and Expenditure Account is a summary of all items of incomes and expenses which relate to the ongoing accounting year. It is prepared with the objective of finding out the surplus or deficit arising out of current incomes over current expenses. It is quite similar to the Trading and Profit and Loss Account of a trading concern and is prepared in an exact manner.

Income and Expenditure Account is prepared on an accrual basis. All incomes and expenses relating to the accounting year, whether they are actually received and paid or not, are taken into consideration. Expenditure is recorded on the debit side and income is recorded on the credit side. A distinction is made between capital and revenue items and only revenue items are included in this account.

Income and Expenditure Account is a nominal account. Therefore, the rule of nominal account (debit all expenses and losses and credit all incomes and gains) is followed while preparing it. While preparing the account, only items of revenue nature are recorded and all items of capital nature are ignored. For example, the profit earned or loss suffered on the sale of an asset will be recorded in it but the amount received from the sale of an asset will not be recorded in it.

The closing balance of this account shows a surplus or deficit for the year. If the credit side exceeds the debit side, there is surplus. On the other hand, if the debit side exceeds the credit side, there is a deficit. The surplus is added to the Capital Fund while the deficit is deducted from the Capital Fund.

Preparation of Income and Expenditure Account

For preparing an income and expenditure account, follow the steps as listed below.

  • Include all items of revenue receipts and expenses, on the respective side of the account.
  • Ensure that no items of capital incomes and expenses are included in this account.
  • Also, adjustment for amounts prepaid and outstanding, with respect to each item will have to be made.
  • Further, items included in receipts and payment account, depreciation, provisions, and profit or loss on sale of assets will have to be included in this account.
  • Finally, after putting down all items of revenue and expenses, you’ll get a balance. The resulting balance will then reveal the surplus or deficit for the period.

Get Accountancy Important Questions here

Solved Question for You

Following is the receipt and payment account of a club for the year ended 31.12.2001. Prepare the income and expenditure account for the club.

Receipt and Payment Account
for the Year Ended 31.03.2001

Receipts Amt Payments Amt
Balance b/d 5,000 Supports equipment 7,000
Subscription: Salaries & wages 3,000
     2004 2,000 Office expenses 400
     2005 10,000 Electric charges 600
Donation 1,000 Telephone charges 600
Entrance fees (To be capitalized) 2,000 Balanced c/d 8,400
20,000 20,000
  1. In 2004 subscription for 2005 was received 1,000.
  2. Outstanding subscription 1,500
  3. Outstanding salaries & wages 1,000.
  4. Depreciation to be charged @ 20% on sports equipment.


Income and Expenditure Account
for the Year Ended 31.03.2001

Receipts Amt Income Amt
Salaries & wages 3,000 Subscription 10,000
Add outstanding 1,000 4,000 Add received in 2004 1,000
Add accrued 1,500 12,500
Office expenses
Electric charges Donation 1,000
Telephone charges
Depreciation on sports equip.
20% of 7,000 1,400
Surplus i.e. excess of income over expenditures 6,500
13,500 13,500


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