Depreciation, Provision and Reserves

Methods of Calculating Depreciation Amount

Depreciation is a simple and interesting concept to study in accountancy. It holds the vital answer to the amount of expense which is charged to the profit and loss account during a period. The amount of depreciation, like other expenses, impacts the amount of profit earned or loss incurred during a year. Therefore, it is important to study the different methods, such as SLM, annuity method etc. Let us study these methods.

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The Methods of Charging Depreciation

Methods of Calculating Depreciation Amount: SLM, Annuity Method etc

(Source: accountlearning)

Straight Line Method (SLM)

The straight line depreciation is the most commonly used depreciation method in accounts and is used mainly owing to its simplicity. For the application of the straight line method, a firm charges an equal amount of the asset’s cost to each accounting period. The straight line formula that is used to calculate depreciation expense is as follows:

Asset’s historical cost – the asset’s estimated salvage value / the asset’s useful life

Units of Production

The units of production depreciation method allocate an equal amount of expense to each unit produced or service rendered by the asset. This method is usually applied to assets used in the production line. The formula to calculate depreciation expense involves the following steps:

Determine the depreciation per unit:

(Asset’s historical cost – estimated salvage value) / estimated total units of production during the asset’s useful life

Determine the expense for the accounting period:

Browse more Topics under Depreciation Provision And Reserves

(Depreciation per unit X number of units produced in the period)

Sum of Year’s Digits

Sum of years’ digits is a depreciation method that results in a more accelerated write off of the asset than the straight-line method, but less accelerated than that of the double-declining balance method. Under this method, annual depreciation is determined by multiplying the depreciable cost by a series of fractions based on the sum of the asset’s useful life digits. The sum of the digits can be determined by using the formula:

(n2+n)/2, where n is equal to the useful life of the asset

Double Declining Balance

The double-declining balance method is a type of accelerated depreciation method that calculates a higher depreciation charge in the first year of an asset’s life and gradually decreases depreciation expense in subsequent years. This method is used if the organization wants to increase the expenses for the year, to reduce tax liability.

Annuity Method

Annuity depreciation methods are usually not based on time, but on a level of Annuity. This could be miles driven for a vehicle, or a cycle count for a machine. When the asset is acquired, its life is estimated in terms of the level of activity or annuity. Assume a vehicle above is estimated to go 50,000 miles in its lifetime. The per-mile depreciation rate is calculated as follows:

(INR 17,000 cost – INR 2,000 salvage) / 50,000 miles = INR 0.30 per mile

Each year, the depreciation expense is then calculated by multiplying the number of miles driven by the per mile depreciation rate.

Solved Question for You

Question: Discuss group depreciation method.

Answer – We use the group depreciation method for depreciating multiple assets using a similar type of depreciation method. The assets must be similar in nature and also have approximately the same useful lives for using this method.

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6 responses to “Provisions”

  1. satish says:

    can we take certain/uncertain income in provision

    • asif says:

      Uncertain amount will be taken in provision. present obligation arising past event and second condition 50% probability and third amount will be perfect observation not randomly.

  2. Mostakim says:

    Tk. 50000 against audit and evaluation costs has been provisioned during 30th june 2019 whike settlement was made at actual taka 47500 as on 25th July 2019? please solve this journal..

    • Srikar says:

      On 30th June:
      1. Audit expense a/c dr 50000
      To Provision for Audit expense 50000
      (Being Provision created for Audit expenses)
      2. Profit and loss a/c dr 50000
      To Audit expense a/c 50000
      (Being Audit expense charged to Profit and loss a/c as an expense of
      current year on accrual basis)
      On 25th July, 2019:
      1. Provision for Audit expense a/c dr 47500
      To Cash/Bank 47500
      (Being payment made towards Audit expense charged to the Provision
      created previously)
      2. Provision for Audit expense a/c dr 2500(i.e,50000-47500)
      Profit and loss a/c 2500
      (Being excess provision reversed by charging to Profit and loss a/c)

  3. Hari Prasad says:

    We have made provision for Bad Debts by debiting P&L during the year 2016-17. The debtors balance is still debit in our Books. How to make write off entry?

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