Depreciation, Provision and Reserves


Another common term which finds a place in the balance sheet of a firm is reserves. The amount of reserves is a very important component in the financial statements. This is because, any amount which is kept aside in reserves, brings down the amount of profits of the firms. Thus, the study of reserves and how they are created, are pertinent to the understanding of accounting terms. Let us get to know what is a reserve.

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What is a Reserve?

What is a Reserve? Revenue Reserve, Capital Reserve etc.

When a company earns a given amount of profit at the end of a financial year, a certain portion of it is usually retained in the business to meet future contingencies, growth prospects and more. This amount of money which is kept aside is termed as Reserves.

Reserves help in safeguarding the financial position of a company and can be used for various purposes such as expansion, stable dividend repayments, legal requirements, meeting contingencies, improving the financial situation, investments and more. It is also sometimes referred to as retained earnings. It is shown on the liability side of a balance sheet under the head “Reserves and Surplus” along with capital. If a company incurs losses then it is not created.

Browse more Topics under Depreciation Provision And Reserves

Revenue Reserves

Revenue reserves are created out of profits earned from operations of a company. It is reflected in profit and loss appropriation account. It can be used for the following purposes:

  • Dividend to shareholders
  • Expansion of business
  • Stabilizing the dividend rate

Revenue reserves are divided into two types & each is kept aside for appropriation for profits. General reserves are created out of profits & kept aside for general purpose and financial strengthening of the company, it doesn’t have any special purpose to fulfill and can be used for any useful reason in future. Such reasons include meeting contingencies and expansions that cannot be foreseen.

Specific reserves, on the other hand, are created keeping a specific reason in mind and can only be used for its designated purpose. Examples of such reserves include Dividend Equalization Reserve, Debenture Redemption Reserves, Contingency Reserves, Capital Redemption Reserves and more.

Capital Reserve

A capital reserve is created upon revaluation of an asset, such that it reflects the current market value. The capital reserve is created out of capital profits & are usually not distributed as dividends to shareholders. As a rule, they cannot be created out of profits earned from core operations of a company.

How are Reserves Created?

When an appropriation for an amount for reserves, record an entry to create the reserve account by debiting retained earnings and crediting the general or specific reserve account.

Profit & Loss A/c – Dr.

To reserve A/c

Solved Question for You

Question: A business wants to reserve funds for a future building construction project. It credits a Building Reserve fund for INR 5 million and debits retained earnings for the same amount. The building is then constructed at a cost of INR 4.9 million, which is accounted for as a debit to the fixed assets account and a credit to cash. What happens when the building is completed?

Answer: The original entry is reversed, where INR 5 million will be debited to the building reserve account and credited to the retained earnings account.

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6 responses to “Provisions”

  1. satish says:

    can we take certain/uncertain income in provision

    • asif says:

      Uncertain amount will be taken in provision. present obligation arising past event and second condition 50% probability and third amount will be perfect observation not randomly.

  2. Mostakim says:

    Tk. 50000 against audit and evaluation costs has been provisioned during 30th june 2019 whike settlement was made at actual taka 47500 as on 25th July 2019? please solve this journal..

    • Srikar says:

      On 30th June:
      1. Audit expense a/c dr 50000
      To Provision for Audit expense 50000
      (Being Provision created for Audit expenses)
      2. Profit and loss a/c dr 50000
      To Audit expense a/c 50000
      (Being Audit expense charged to Profit and loss a/c as an expense of
      current year on accrual basis)
      On 25th July, 2019:
      1. Provision for Audit expense a/c dr 47500
      To Cash/Bank 47500
      (Being payment made towards Audit expense charged to the Provision
      created previously)
      2. Provision for Audit expense a/c dr 2500(i.e,50000-47500)
      Profit and loss a/c 2500
      (Being excess provision reversed by charging to Profit and loss a/c)

  3. Hari Prasad says:

    We have made provision for Bad Debts by debiting P&L during the year 2016-17. The debtors balance is still debit in our Books. How to make write off entry?

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