A cost sheet is a statement prepared at periodical intervals of time, which accumulates all the elements of the costs associated with a product or production job. It is used to compile the margin earned on a product or job and forms the basis for the setting of prices on similar products in the future. We shall study the Cost Sheet Format in detail.
Cost Sheet Format
A Cost Sheet depicts the following facts:
- Total cost and cost per unit for a product.
- The various elements of cost such as prime cost, factory cost, production cost, cost of goods sold, total cost, etc.
- Percentage of every expenditure to the total cost.
- Compare the cost of any two periods and ascertain the inefficiencies if any.
- Information to management for cost control
- Calculate and summarize the total cost of the product.
Learn more about Meaning of Cost Accounting here in detail.
Objects of Cost Sheet
1. For determining the selling price
A cost sheet helps in determination of selling price of a product or of a service. Cost sheet ascertains cost at each stage of the product and also the total cost of the product, where a margin of profit is added and thus the selling price is ascertained.
2. Facilitating in managerial decision making
Preparation of cost sheet helps managers at various levels in their decision-making process such as
- to produce or buy a component,
- what price of goods to quote in the tender,
- whether to retain or replace an existing machine,
- how to reduce costs and maximize profit.
- identify and make decisions whether they need to continue with the product or not.
3. Preparation of budgets
Organizations can prepare a budget with the help of a cost sheet. We can prepare the budget by using the current or previous year’s data.
Based on our existing cost sheet, we can make estimates of our cost for the next financial year. It helps to prepare and make the necessary arrangement of funds for costs of the next financial year
Elements of Cost
Prime Cost: It comprises of direct material, direct wages, and direct expenses. Alternatively, the Prime cost is the cost of material consumed, productive wages, and direct expenses.
Factory Cost: Factory cost or works cost or manufacturing cost or production cost includes in addition to the prime cost the cost in indirect material, indirect labor, and indirect expenses. It also includes amount or units of WIP or incomplete units at the end of the period.
Cost of Production: When Office and administration cost at the end of the period are added to the Factory cost, we arrive at the cost of production or cost of goods sold. Here, we make an adjustment for opening and Closing finished goods.
Total Cost: Total cost or alternatively cost of sales is the cost of production plus selling and distribution overheads.
Proforma of A Cost Sheet
|ADD||OP STOCK OF RAW MATERIAL|
|LESS||CL STOCK OF RAW MATERIAL|
|ADD||WORKS OR FACTORY OVERHEADS|
|ADD||OP STOCK OF WIP|
|LESS||CL STOCK OF WIP|
|ADD||ADMINISTRATION OR OFFICE OVERHEADS|
|COST OF PRODUCTION|
|ADD||SELLING AND DISTRIBUTION OVERHEADS|
|ADD||OP STOCK OF FG|
|LESS||CL STOCK OF FG|
|COST OF SALES|
Method of Preparation of Cost Sheet
|Step I||Prime Cost = Direct Material Consumed + Direct Labour + Direct Expenses
Direct Material= Material Purchased + Opening stock of raw material-Closing stock of raw material.
|Step II||Works Cost = Prime Cost + Factory Overheads (Indirect Material + Indirect Labour + Indirect Expenses)+opening Work in progress-Closing Work in progress|
|Step III||Cost of Production = Works Cost + Office and Administration overheads + Opening finished goods-Closing finished goods|
|Step IV||Total Cost = Cost of Production + Selling and Distribution Overheads|
|Profit||Sales – Total Cost|
Solved Example for You
From the following information prepare a cost sheet.
|Direct material -Opening stock||20000|
|Direct material -Closing Stock||25000|
|Factory manager salary||15000|
|Office and administration overheads||28,000|
|Opening stock of finished goods||5000|
|Closing stock of finished goods||10000|
|Selling and distribution overheads||33,000|
Company desires a margin of 20% profit on the cost of sales
|COST SHEET FOR THE MONTH OF__________ FOR XYZ.|
|ADD||OP STOCK OF RAW MATERIAL||20,000.00|
|LESS||CL STOCK OF RAW MATERIAL||25,000.00||–|
|ADD||WORKS OR FACTORY OVERHEADS|
|Factory manager salary||15,000.00|
|ADD||OP STOCK OF WIP||13,000.00|
|LESS||CL STOCK OF WIP||7,000.00||6,000.00|
|ADD||ADMINISTRATION OR OFFICE OVERHEADS||28,000.00|
|COST OF PRODUCTION||174,000.00|
|ADD||SELLING AND DISTRIBUTION OVERHEADS||33,000.00||33,000.00|
|ADD||OP STOCK OF FG||5,000.00|
|LESS||CL STOCK OF FG||10,000.00||–|
|COST OF SALES||202,000.00|
|ADD||PROFIT MARGIN @ 20% ON COST OF SALES||40,400.00|