NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 – Agriculture
Geography is a subject that has a relation with many other subjects. It not only relates to minerals and resources but also with agriculture and many other activities. In this chapter of the NCERT book, they discuss Agriculture. Our NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 has a complete guide of the chapter.
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CBSE Class 8 Geography Chapter 4 – Agriculture NCERT Solutions
Agriculture refers to the practice or science of farming that includes cultivation of soil and growing of crops. It also includes the rearing of animals to fulfill the demand for wool, food, and other products.
Introduction- At the beginning of the chapter a story of three friends that are walking through the village and saw a farmer tilling his land. After that, the farmer tells them what he is doing and why it is so important.
Later on, this topic discusses the three types of economic activities that are primary, secondary, and tertiary. Also, it tells why agriculture is so important in India.
Sub-topics covered under NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Geography Chapter 4
4.1 Farm System
This topic describes that agriculture can also be understood by seeing it as a system. The process can be divided into three-step cycle input, process, and output. Firstly, the farmer input machinery, chemical, manure, and seeds. Secondly, he waters them, plough, sows, and sprays on them. And lastly, he harvests the finished product.
4.2 Types of Farming
The topic tells that farming can be broadly categorized into two main types. And we are going to discuss them briefly.
4.2.1 Subsistence Farming- Farmers do this type of farming to fulfill only their family’s need. Also, it is further categorized as:
18.104.22.168 Intensive subsistence agriculture- In this farmer cultivate a small piece of land using simple tools and labor.
22.214.171.124 Primitive subsistence agriculture– It includes two types of farming namely shifting cultivation and nomadic herding.
- Shifting cultivation- Means that farmers cultivate a piece of land by burning the vegetation on the land and after burning the farmer mix the ashes into the soil and cultivate the land and after the land become barren he moves to a new location. It is also known as slash and burn.
- Nomadic herding- In this, the farmer moves from place to place with his herd of animals.
4.2.2 Commercial farming- It refers to those farming that farmers do to sell their produce in the market.
126.96.36.199 Mixed farming- It refers to farming in which farmer grow two or more crop in the same field alternatively.
188.8.131.52 Plantations- In this, a single crop is grown on a large scale. Also, it requires a large amount of capital and labor.
4.2.3 Major crops – This topic discusses the various major crops in India namely rice, wheat millet, maize, cotton, jute, coffee, and tea.
4.3 Agricultural Development
This topic refers to the efforts made to meet the growing demand of the increasing population. It also discusses the most suitable type of farming in different countries.
4.3.1 A farm in India- This topic describe the size of farm an Indian farmer owns. And the struggle he faces to harvest his land. Above all, it describes the seeds they use and where they sell their produce.
4.3.2 A farm in the USA- This topic discusses the same things that we have discussed above. But there is a huge gap between the farmers in India and USA.
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