Syllogism

Two Premise Arguments

Syllogisms are one of the common topics in competitive exams. You will find questions on this topic in every competitive exam. Also, this topic does not require any particular skill so you can learn it easily. Besides this, it is one of the scoring topics you will find in any competitive exams. And today in syllogisms we are going to talk about questions based on Two premise arguments.

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What are syllogisms?

The syllogism term denotes that form of reasoning where conclusions need to be drawn from two statements. It is asked under logical reasoning section of the exam and is undoubtedly a very important topic. Generally, questions asked on this topic are of easy to moderate level.

Two premise

Before moving on the examples, here are some of the terminologies that you need to know before solving the questions.
Subject: It is a term which is used to affirm or deny a fact.
Prediction: It is a term which states something about the subject.
Proposition: A proposition is also known as a premise, it is a sentence which consists of a subject and predicate.

There are different types of the proposition but you can divide them into 4 types. They are:

1. Universal affirmative or A-type proposition.

In the below proposition, entire category represented by the subject A is distributed in the category which is represented by predicate B. Thus, it can be concluded that in this type of proposition, only subject is distributed. As a result, the example of this type of proposition is All A is B.Two premise

2. I – type proposition

The figure perfectly represents this proposition. In this proposition, subject and predicate have something in common. It also implies that neither subject nor predicate can be distributed.

Two premise

3. E – type proposition

In below figure, every proposition is graphically described. And thus in this proposition, you can see that both subject and predicate have nothing in common. Hence, subject and predicate are distributed.

Two premise

4. 0 – type proposition

In 0 – type proposition some of the category represented by A is not B, which means that a section of A is denied with the entire B. It is thus concluded that in 0 – type proposition only predicate is distributed.

Two premise

Examples Based on Two Premise Arguments

Directions:

In each of the question given below, there are two statements given which are followed by two conclusions which are I and II. Even though the statements seem to be different you have to take them to be true because of the facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follow from the two given statements.

Given below are the options for all the questions. Choose your answer from it.
A) only conclusion I follow,
B) only conclusion II follows,
C) if either I or II follows,
D) if neither I nor II follows, and
E) if both I and II follow.

Q. Statements
I: Some pearls are gems.
II: Some gems are ornaments.
Conclusion
I: Some gems are pearls.
II: Some pearls are ornaments.

Before solving any two premise arguments based questions. Read the statements and conclusion carefully because it will be better if you avoid silly error in these questions.

For the conclusion I, you can see that there is an immediate inference drawn from the statement I. Also, from the above mentioned the types of the proposition, the statement I is of I – type and I – type proposition can be converted into I – type. This also means that ‘some pearls are gems’ can be concluded as ‘some gems are pearls’. Thus, the conclusion I follow.

Since the given statements are particular there can be no mediate inferences established. Thus conclusion II does not follow. So, the correct answer is A.

Practice Questions

Given below are the options for all the questions. Choose your answer from it.
A) if only conclusion I follow,
B) if only conclusion II follows,
C) if either I or II follows,
D) if neither I nor II follows, and
E) if both I and II follow.

Q. Statement
I: Some fools are intelligent.
II: Some intelligent is great.
Conclusion
I: Some fools are great.
II: All great are intelligent.

The correct answer is D.

Q. Statement
I: All cars are cats.
II: All fans are cats.
Conclusion
I: All cars are fans
II: Some fans are cars.

The correct answer is D.

Q. Statement
I: All tigers are ships.
II: Some ships are cupboards.
Conclusion
I: Some tigers are cupboards.
II: Some cupboards are tigers.

The correct answer is A.

Q. Statement
I: All books are papers.
II: All pencils are pins.
Conclusion
I: Some pins are books.
II: No pin is a book.

The correct answer is A.

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