Direction and Coordination

Types of Coordination

Coordination is the essence of management and an integral part of all the managerial functions. It is also instrumental in binding all the managerial functions. In this article, we will explore the types of coordination and what they entail.

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Types of Coordination

In an organization, the efficient coordination of internal and external components help in reducing the complexities (both internal and external). Therefore, the organization experiences an increase in productivity, easier integration of micro and macro level organizational dynamics, a better connection of roles among intra-organizational and inter-organizational groups as well as building trust among competing groups, and defining organizational tasks. Coordination is primarily of two types – internal coordination and external coordination as described below.

types of coordination         

Internal Coordination

Internal coordination is all about establishing a relationship between all the managers, executives, departments, divisions, branches, and employees or workers. These relationships are established with a view to coordinate the activities of the organization. Internal coordination has two groups:

Vertical coordination – In vertical coordination, a superior authority coordinates his work with that of his subordinates and vice versa. For example, a sales manager will coordinate his tasks with his sales supervisors. On the other hand, all sales supervisors ensure that they work in sync with the sales manager.

Horizontal coordination – In horizontal coordination, employees of the same status establish a relationship between them for better performance. For example, the coordination between department heads, or supervisors, or co-workers, etc.

In other words, in internal coordination, an employee either reports vertically to the supervisor and/or the subordinates and horizontally to the colleagues and/or co-workers.

External Coordination

As the name suggests, external coordination is all about establishing a relationship between the employees of the organization and people outside it.

These relationships are established with a view to having a better understanding of outsiders like market agencies, public, competitors, customers, government agencies, financial institutions, etc.

Usually, organizations entrust a Public Relations Officer (PRO) with the responsibility of establishing cordial relationships between the employees of the organization and outsiders.

Coordination – The Essence of Management

Coordination is the essence of management as it is inseparable from the following managerial functions:

Planning – In planning, coordination allows a manager to assess what he must include and/or exclude in a good plan. Planning also facilitates coordination by integrating various plans through mutual discussion and exchanging ideas.

Organizing – Organizing requires a lot of coordination. Whenever the management assigns tasks or activities to individuals or groups, coordination allows them to organize it well.

Staffing – In staffing, coordination helps to specify the type of staff required and its rational placement. For better coordination, the management always ensures that they hire the right number of employees with the appropriate skills and qualification. This also ensures that they have the right men in the right job.

Directing – In directing, coordination provides focus to the manager. In fact, the purpose of giving orders or instructions to subordinates is served only when there is a sense of coordination and harmony between them.

Controlling Coordination makes reporting realistic. Through coordination, the management ensures that the actual performance is as close to the standard performance as possible.

Solved Question on Types of Coordination

Q1. What are the two main types of coordination?


The two primary types of coordination are internal coordination or establishing a relationship between all the employees, departments, etc. and external coordination or establishing a relationship between the employees and the outsiders.

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