We know about matter’s physical and chemical properties? But what are the states of matter? And can you change the states of matter? Let’s find out more about these states of matter below.
Introduction to the States of Matter
States of matters are usually of three types i.e. solid, liquid and gaseous (There are also two other types i.e. plasma and Bose-Einstein condensate). We’ll study about solid state, liquid state, and gaseous state. For e.g. wood is in the solid state, oil is in liquid state and oxygen is in the gaseous state. Water is found in all the states, viz solid state, liquid state, and gaseous state. Water is in the liquid state, it can evaporate and be converted into the gaseous state, it can also be frozen and turned into the solid state.
How to Determine the States of Matter?
The following properties determine the states of matter:
- The kinetic energy of particles due to their motion.
- Force of attraction between its atoms.
- Interparticle space.
When the kinetic energy is high, the interparticle force is negligible and the interparticle space is non – existent then the matter is found in the gaseous state. If the interparticle space is reduced, the amount of kinetic energy exerted is very small and the interparticle force is very strong, then the matter that exists is in the solid state.
When the interparticle force between the atoms is strong, then the interparticle space increases due to the sufficient kinetic energy that makes the particles move constantly and the matter exists as a liquid.
Properties of the States of Matter
The following are the properties of the states of matter i.e. solids, liquids, and gases:
Properties of Solids
The following are the properties of the solid state of matter :
- Solids occupy space at room temperature.
- Solids can’t move from one position to another on their own, however, they can vibrate at room temperature.
- They vibrate more after being heated and they start moving randomly.
- Solids change into liquids at high temperatures, i.e. when they melt. For example, iron melts when you heat it.
- Solids have a very strong interparticle force, and their interparticle space and kinetic energy are reduced.
- Solids can be turned into gases by the process of deposition.
Properties of Gases
The following are the properties of the gaseous state of matter :
- Since the interparticle space doesn’t exist in gases, they move randomly and rapidly in the entire space available to them.
- They don’t have definite space or volume.
- Gases can convert into liquids with the help of condensation.
- Their kinetic energy is high, and so their interparticle force is negligible.
- Gases can convert into solids with the help of sublimation.
Properties of Liquids
The following are the properties of the liquid state of matter :
- Liquids move everywhere within the volume occupied by the liquid as the particles move constantly.
- Liquids have a strong interparticle force, sufficient kinetic energy and an increased interparticle space.
- It can be turned into solids due to the process of solidification.
- Evaporation is a process which turns liquids into gases.
- The particles of liquid begin to move rapidly when there is a rise in the temperature.
Question For You
Q. Which of the following property doesn’t determine the states of matter?
- Interparticle force
- Source of origin
- Kinetic energy
- Interparticle space
Sol: The source of origin doesn’t determine the state of matter.