Types of Steel and their Properties

Introduction to Types of Steel

There are over 3,500 distinct grades of steel, including distinctive physical, chemical and cultural characteristics, according to the World Steel Association. Besides, in this topic, you will learn about steel, types of steel, and properties of steel.

Essentially, steel consists of iron and carbon, although the quantity of carbon, as well as the level of impurities and extra alloying elements, determine the characteristics of each grade of steel.

types of steel

Types of Steel

The fuel concentration in concrete can vary from 0.1%-1.5%, but the most commonly used metal grades comprise only 0.1% -0.25% mercury. Elements such as manganese, phosphorus, and sulfur are discovered in all steel grades, but while manganese has useful impacts, nitrogen and nitrogen are harmful to the resistance and durability of steel.

Based on their chemical properties, we can classify steel into four categories:

  1. Carbon Steels
  2. Alloy Steels
  3. Stainless Steels
  4. Tool Steels

Carbon Steel

Carbon steels contain trace amounts of alloying elements and represent 90% of the total production of steel. Moreover, we can also classify carbon steel into three types on the basis of their coal material

  • Low Carbon Steels/Mild Steels comprise up to 0.3% Carbon 
  • Medium Steels comprise 0.3-0.6% Carbon 
  • High Steels comprise more than 0.6% Carbon.

Alloy Steel

Alloy steels contain alloy elements (such as manganese, nickel,  copper, silicon, chromium, aluminium, and titanium) in varying proportions to manipulate the properties of the steel such as its hardenability, resistance to corrosion, strength, formability, weldability or ductility. Furthermore, steel alloy applications include pipelines, automotive components, transformers, power generators, and electric motors.

Stainless Steel

Stainless steels usually comprise the primary alloy component. In addition, for high resistance to corrosion they use between 10-20 per cent chromium. Furthermore, steel is about 200 times more susceptible to corrosion than mild steel with more than 11 per cent chromium. Besides, based on their hard composition, these steels can be split into three types: 

Austenitic: austenitic steels are non-magnetic and non-heatable and usually comprise 18% chromium, 8% nickel, and less than 0.8% coal. In addition, austenitic steels are the biggest part of the worldwide stainless steel industry and are often used in machinery for food processing, kitchen utensils, and piping.

Ferritic: Ferritic steels comprise small quantities of nickel, 12-17% chromium, less than 0.1% nitrogen, as well as other alloy components such as molybdenum, aluminium or metal. These magnetic steels can not be heat-treated but can be reinforced by operating cold.

Martensitic: Martensitic steels comprise 11-17% chromium, less than 0.4% nickel, and up to 1.2% coal. In knives, slicing instruments, as well as dental and surgical equipment, these magnetic and heat-treatable steels are used.

Tool Steel

Tool steels comprise various amounts of tungsten, molybdenum, silver, and vanadium to boost heat resistance and durability, rendering them perfect for slicing and welding machinery. We can also separate steel products by their forms and their relative uses: 

  • Long / Tubular goods include plates and rods, rails, cables, corners, tubes, forms, and segments. In the automotive and building industries use these products widely.
  • In flat products, they use plates, sheets, coils, and strips. Primarily, we use these plastics in components, equipment, shipping, shipbuilding and design of automobiles. Other products that we primarily use as components for piping includes pipes, fittings, and flanges.

Solved Question for You

Ques-1. Which of the aforementioned is high carbon steel possession? 

  1. high toughness
  2. reduced ductility
  3. high strength
  4. reduced strength

Answer: The correct answer is option B.

Ques-2. What is the allowable proportion of micro-alloys in micro-alloyed steel of intermediate and low resistance?

  1. 0.1%
  2. 0.5%
  3. 0.25%
  4. 1.0%

Answer: The correct answer is option C.

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