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Titration – Types, Examples, Procedure

Introduction to Titration and Types of Titration

First of all, titration is an important part of the study of chemistry. Furthermore, there are four important types of titration. It is a must for physical chemistry laboratory experiments.

Titration refers to a process where the use of a solution of known concentration takes place for the determination of the concentration of an unknown solution. In this topic, we will certainly explain the types of titration, examples, and procedures for experimentation.

Understanding Titration and Types of Titration

First of all, titration is a procedure that takes place in a lab. Furthermore, this procedure uses a solution of known concentration in order to determine the concentration of an unknown solution.

Moreover, this is accomplished by putting one of the solutions in a flask and filling a burette with the other solution. Also, the stopcock on the burette allows one to slowly add one solution to the other until the reaction reaches an endpoint, the conclusion of the reaction.

Typically, the titrant i.e. the known solution is added from a burette to a known quantity of the analyte i.e. the unknown solution until the reaction is complete. Now, knowing the volume of titrant added allows the finding of the concentration of the unknown to take place. Generally, we use an indicator to usually signal the end of the reaction.

Acid-Base Titration

This type is certainly very important among the types of titration. The strength of acids can be found using a standard solution of the base and is called acidimetry. Similarly, one can find the strength of a base with the help of a standard solution of an acid, which is known as alkalimetry.

Both titrations certainly play a role in the neutralization of alkali. Furthermore, in an acid-base titration, one of the solutions is an acid and the other a base. Moreover, one is placed in a flask and the other is placed in a burette, from which it is dripped into the flask until the titration reaches its endpoint.

Examples:

HA+BOH→BA+H2O

Acid Alkali→Salt Water

Or H+ + A + B+ + OH → B+ + A + H2O

Or H+ + OH → H2O

This titration is based on the reaction of neutralization between a base or an acidic and analyte. Furthermore, in this type, a reagent is mixed with the sample solution until it reaches the required pH level. This type of titration majorly depends on the track change in pH or a pH meter.

Redox Titrations

One can call this titration as an oxidation-reduction reaction. In this titration, the chemical reaction takes place with a transfer of electrons in the reacting ions of aqueous solutions. In a redox titration, one solution is a reducing agent and the other an oxidizing agent.

Examples:

Some popular examples of this titrations are as follows;

(a) Permanganate Titrations:

The use of potassium permanganate is as an oxidizing agent. Its maintenance takes place with the use of dilute sulphuric acid.

2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 → K2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + 3H2 + 5O

Or MnO4 + 8H + 5e → Mn2++ 4H2O

This solution remains colourless before the endpoint. Moreover, the potassium permanganate is used to estimate oxalic acid, ferrous salts, hydrogen peroxide, oxalates and many more.

(b)Dichromate Titrations:

These are certainly using potassium dichromate as an oxidizing agent in acidic medium. Moreover, the maintenance of the acidic medium takes place by the use of dilute sulphuric acid.

K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 → K2Cr2(SO4) + 4H2O + 3[O]

Or Cr2O27- + 14H + 6e → 2 Cr3+ + 7H2O

(c) Iodometric and Iodometric Titrations:

Furthermore, these titrations, the reduction of free iodine to iodide ions and oxidation of iodide ions to free occurs.

l2 + 2e → 2l–……………. (reduction)

2l– + 2e → 2e ……………. (oxidation)

Precipitation Titrations

The basis of this titration is on the precipitate formation. We bring two reacting substances into contact in precipitation titration.

Example: When use of the solution of silver nitrate takes place to a solution of ammonium thiocyanate or sodium chloride. It reacts and forms a white precipitate of silver thiocyanate or silver chloride.

AgNO3 + NaCl → AgCl + NaNO3

AgNO3 + NH4CNS → AgCNS + NH4NO3

Complexometric Titrations

In this titration, most importantly, the formation of an undissociated complex takes place. Furthermore, it is more than precipitation titrations.

Example:

Hg2+ + 2SCN → Hg(SCN)2

Ag+ + 2CN → [Ag(CN)2]

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid i.e. EDTA is certainly an important reagent that forms complexes with metals.

The procedure For the Types of Titration

• Firstly, choose the titrant.
• Afterwards, choose the titrate.
• Select the normality of the titrate.
• Furthermore, choose the volume of the liquid to be pipetted out.
• Moreover, select the indicator.
• Start titration.
• One must note the endpoint at the colour change of the solution.
• From the final reading, now calculate the normality of titrant using the equation given:

N1V1=N2V2

• Finally, after finding the calculation of normality, calculate the amount of given substance in the whole solution using the equation:

Mass = $$\frac{Equivalent Weight x Normality x Volume}{100}$$

Solved Question for you

Q: What unknown quantity can be calculated after a titration?

Ans: When titrations are performed using an unknown, the goal is to find out what the unknown is. Furthermore, the unknown quantities that we can calculate after a titration include calculating the unknown concentration as well as calculating the mass percentage of the unknown.

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