Business Organizations

Company Overview of – Cipla, Coal India, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, GAIL

Here we talk about the two names that frequently echo whenever the topic of discussion is pharmaceuticals – Cipla and Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories and the two Maharatnas of India without which our natural resources would have been left for a toss- Coal India Limid and GAIL.

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Coal India

  • Incorporation year: 1935
  • Headquarter: Mumbai, India
  • Chairman: Y.K. Hamied
  • Present Head(MD and CEO): Umang Vohra
  • Chief Financial Officer: Kedar Upadhey

Cipla Ltd. is a leading manufacturer of pharmaceuticals in India. It is a leading Indian multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology company. In fact, it has a staggering 1500 pharmaceutical products in 60 therapeutic categories. Further, it has operations in both domestic and international markets.

Cipla primarily develops medicines to treat respiratory, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, diabetes, weight control and depression; other medical conditions. Essentially, the company has earned a name for itself by adhering to the best quality standards and hence getting approvals from the ministries of health of various nations as well as international agencies. In 2013-14, Cipla saw revenue of ₹104.83 billion, employing over 22,000 workers.

Company’s Own Words

  • Slogan: Caring for life.
  • Vision: To be the first global biotech company to provide high-quality products at affordable prices that will enable access for millions of patients worldwide by the year 2025.
  • Mission: Cipla’s mission is to be a leading global healthcare company which uses technology and innovation
    to meet the everyday needs of all the patients.


Cipla proudly boasts of manufacturing more than 200 generic and complex Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs). Moreover, it sells pharmaceuticals to other manufacturers. Additionally, it sells both pharmaceutical and personal care products.

In fact, it is the world’s largest manufacturer of anti-retroviral drugs. Cipla also cooperates with other enterprises in areas such as consulting, commissioning, engineering, project appraisal, quality control, know-how transfer, support, and plant supply

Coal India Limited

Coal India


  • Incorporation year: 1975
  • Ownership: State-owned
  • Headquarter: Kolkata, India
  • Chairman and Managing director: Anil Kumar Jha
  • Chief Financial Officer: Chandan Kumar Dey

Coal India is an Indian state-controlled coal mining company. It accounts for about 84% of the coal production in India, giving it the bragging rights in this sector. Additionally, it is controlled by the Ministry of Coal. The Union Government conferred the Maharatna status to Coal India Limited in 2011, making it one of the seven Maharatnas.

Moreover, Coal India Limited is the largest producer of coal in the world. In addition to operating through 82 mining areas, Coal India Limited manages 200 other establishments like hospitals, workshops, etc. In 2017 the revenue of Coal India Limited was ₹83,736.21 crore. Undoubtedly, it is a company of national importance.


In the initial years after independence, the coal mining industry in India was handled by a majority of private players. However, two sparks fuelled the fire within the government to step in and nationalize a majority of the coal industry.

First, the oil price shock rendered India to explore other energy options. A committee set up for this purpose opined coal as the best alternative. Secondly, the growth of this industry was within the limits of the private sector. A nationalization drive gave the coal industry a much-needed boost in growth.

Company’s Own Words

Vision: To emerge as a global player in the primary energy sector committed to providing energy security to the country by attaining environmentally & socially sustainable growth through best practices from mine to market.

Mission: To produce and market the planned quantity of coal and coal products efficiently and economically in an eco-friendly manner with due regard to safety, conservation, and quality.

Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd.

Coal India


  • Incorporation Year: 1984
  • Headquarter: Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Chairman: Kallam Satish Reddy
  • Present Head(CEO): G.V. Prasad
  • COO: Erez Israeli
  • CFO: Saumen Chakraborty

Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd. is an Indian multinational pharmaceutical company. It is now included in the list of most trusted brands in India.

Markedly, it began the pharmaceutical business from less-regulated markets, where approvals from a regulatory body were not required, and slowly went on to capture highly regulated markets like Europe and U.S. Evidently, it has a strong presence in both domestic and international markets.

To make its case stronger, it acquired American Remedies Ltd. in 1999. As a result of this acquisition, it became the third largest pharmaceutical manufacturer in India after Ranbaxy and Glaxo Ltd. with a full spectrum of pharmaceutical products, which included bulk drugs, intermediates, finished dosages, chemical synthesis, diagnostics, and biotechnology.

Further, the company has over 190 medications, 60 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) for drug manufacture, diagnostic kits, critical care, and biotechnology products. In 2017-18, it had a revenue of ₹14,203 crore and employed 23,524.


After its launch in 1984, DR. Reddy’s Laboratories focused on the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients in its initial phases. Then in 1986, it expanded to operations on branded formulations. Within a year its first recognized brand called Norilet was launched.

In addition to this, they saw success with Omez. In fact, it became the first Indian company to export pharmaceutical ingredients to Europe. Moreover, this paved a way for its transformation from a supplier of pharmaceutical ingredients to a manufacturer of pharmaceutical products.

Company’s Own Words

• Bringing expensive medicine within reach.
• Addressing unmet patient needs.
• Helping patients manage the disease better.
• Enabling and helping our patients ensure that our medicines are available where needed.
• Working with patients to help them succeed.


The generic segment includes products like tablets, capsules, injectables and topical creams. Some famous brands in this segment are Omez, Nise, Ketorol, Stamlo, and Razo

. Whereas, the counter segment consists of products like medicines on pain management, dermatology, allergy management areas, and gynaecology. Lastly, some famous brands are Citrine, Nise gel, Ibuclin, and Novigan.

GAIL(India) Ltd.

Coal India

(Source: Wikipedia)

  • Incorporation Year: 1984
  • Ownership Group: Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas
  • Headquarter: New Delhi, India
  • Chairman and Present Head: Bhuvan Chand Tripathi
  • Finance Director: Subir Purkayastha

Gas India Limited is an Indian state-owned natural gas processing and distribution company. Moreover, it is the largest natural gas processing company. Evidently, it is at the apex of gas transmission and marketing in India.

It has the following business segments: natural gas, liquid hydrocarbon, liquefied petroleum gas transmission, petrochemical, city gas distribution, exploration and production, GAILTEL and electricity generation.

GAIL got the Maharatna status on 1st February 2013 by the Government of India. In fact, it is among the seven PSEs to have been conferred with the Maharatna status amongst all the central PSEs. Further, it has around 70%market shares in both gas transmission and marketing.

Markedly GAIL owns the cross-country 2300 km Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur pipeline with a capacity to handle 33.4 MMSCMD gas. This happens to be the country’s largest pipeline network. Definitely with ownership of a 1100km natural gas pipeline across the country and a presence in 22 states establishes its supremacy in the natural gas field.

Additionally, it operates and owns a 2000km long web of LPG pipelines coupled with the pride of operating one of the world’s longest exclusive LPG pipeline in the country from Jamnagar in Gujarat to Loni in Uttar Pradesh. In 2017, the revenue of GAIL amounted to ₹50,059.26 crore. Further, the number of employees was more than 4,300 in the same year. 


The roots of GAIL were laid by the Indian Government in 1984 as a Central PSU under the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas. Its principal and the first task was to take into its hands the responsibility of the Hazira-Vizaipur-Jagdishpur pipeline, the longest cross-country pipeline in the world.

Steadily, it took baby steps towards the gas transportation business, triggered y the acquisition of some regional pipelines and construction of LPG stations. Later in 1997, it began city gas distribution in New Delhi in 1997 by setting up nine compressed natural gas (CNG) stations. Remarkably, it has now taken giant leaps in the old businesses and also stepped into new realms of business like telecom, power, etc.

Solved Question on

Q: What are the various business segments of operation of GAIL?

Ans: The business segments in which GAIL has set a foot are: natural gas, liquid hydrocarbon, liquefied petroleum gas transmission, petrochemical, city gas distribution, exploration and production, GAILTEL and electricity gen.

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