# Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism refers to a branch of physics that involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a kind of physical interaction that happens between electrically charged particles. The electromagnetic fields composing of electric fields and magnetic fields carry this electromagnetic force. Moreover, it causes electromagnetic radiation like a light. Further, it is one of the four basic interactions, which we usually call forces, in nature. At high energy, the weak force and electromagnetic force unify as a single electroweak force. We find a lot of mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field. Through this article, we will take a look at the meaning of this topic and help you understand how it functions so that you can clear your basics in an understandable manner.

## Introduction to Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism refers to a branch of Physics which deals in electromagnetic force which takes place between electrically charged particles. Moreover, the electromagnetic force is one of the four basic forces.

Similarly, it displays electromagnetic fields such as magnetic fields, electrical fields and light. Further, it is the fundamental reason electrons bound to the nucleus and responsible for completing the structure of the nucleus.

### Meaning of Electromagnetic Force

The electromagnetic forces refer to a kind of physical interaction which takes places between particles which are electrically charged. It acts between charged particles and is the amalgamation of all magnetic and electrical forces. Further, the electromagnetic force can be attractive or repulsive.

Before electromagnetism was invented, people or scientists were of the thinking that electricity and magnetism are two different subjects. However, after James Clerk Maxwell published A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism in 1873, these views began to change.

In his publication, he stated that the interaction of the positive and negative charges mediate through one force. It was this observation which laid a foundation for electromagnetism. After that, the other scientists like Michael Faraday, Oliver Heaviside, and Heinrich Hertz added their ideas regarding the same.

### What is Electromagnetism?

Electromagnetism refers to a process where a magnetic field is produced when the current in the conductor is introduced. When a conductor is electrically charged, it produces magnetic lines of force of the conductor.

For instance, if the current (positive charges) moves in a wire, it creates the magnetic field along the wire, and we can determine the direction of magnetic lines and force through the use of Right-hand rule.

### Applications of Electromagnetism

There are many applications of electromagnetism. The first one is that it serves as a fundamental working principle for many of the home appliances in household uses. Secondly, the Maglev trains or high-speed trains operate on the principle of electromagnetism.

Thirdly, we make use of the electromagnetic radiations in the communication system for transferring data from the source to the receiver. Fourthly, we use electromagnetism in industries ranging from small ones to large power equipment at least one stage of their work.

### Example of Electromagnetism

The permanent magnetic speakers which we commonly use in TV’s and radios are the perfect examples of electromagnetic devices. To understand the operation of these devices, we need to know the principle of electromagnetism.

For converting electrical waves into an audible sound, we design these speakers accordingly. Firstly, we attach a metal coil to a permanent magnet. When current passes through the coil, it produces a magnetic field.

Thus, the magnetic fields which form newly repel by the permanent magnetic field which results in the vibrations. Further, the cone-like structure further amplifies these vibrations which cause the sound. So, you see this is how speakers operate.

### Electromagnetic Induction

You already know what happens when a conductor is electrically charged. Now, we will take a look at what happens when we put the conductor in between the magnetic field. When we place the conductor or move it through the magnetic field, it will produce voltage i.e. electricity.

We refer to this principle as electromagnetic induction. The voltages which outcomes will be on the basis of the speed of the conductor which movies via the electric field. So, the fasted is the conductor’s speed, the greater will be the induced electricity or voltage.

As per Faraday’s Law, the relative motion between magnetic field and conductor, the flux linkage changes and this change in flux induces a voltage across the coil. For instance, the DC generator works on the principle of Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction.

It is basically a system which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. A regular conductor width sides are positioned in between a magnetic field. When this rectangular conductor will rotate in between magnetics, it will cut the magnetic field which will cause the Electromagnetic field (e m f).

### More About Electromagnetism and Electric Motors

Hans Orsted, a Danish physicist, was the first one for discovering that a magnetic field was created by the flow of electric current.

Joseph Henry, an American physicist, discovered electromagnetic inductance. Moreover, he also built the first electromagnetic motor.

Some of the electric generators, we can drive by human power like hand crank or a bicycle for producing electricity.

Through the use of electromagnetism, we can turn powerful magnets on and off by using electricity, which does not happen with permanent magnets.

Loudspeakers make use of electromagnets for vibrating the cone and producing sound.

## FAQ on Electromagnetism

Question 1: How do we define the phenomena of electromagnetic?

Answer 1: We define the electromagnetic phenomena in terms of the electromagnetic force, which we often refer to as the Lorentz force. Further, it includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. Similarly,  the electromagnetic force plays a chief role in determining the internal properties of many of the objects which we encounter in daily life.

Question 2: State some properties of electromagnetic waves.

Answer 2: Some of the properties of electromagnetic waves are as follows:

Electromagnetic waves propagate by oscillating waves electric and magnetic waves oscillating at right angles to each other. Moreover, they display properties of interference and diffraction. Further, they are transverse waves and travel at a speed of 3 × 108 m/s in a vacuum.

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