What Is Adaptation Theory? – Types of Adaptation

What is Adaptation?

Adaption is a shift in an organism’s composition and function. Also, it is a result of the normal process by which an animal is superior equipped to endure and also multiply in a setting. In this topic, we will teach you what is adaptation, its theory and types. 

what is adaptation

What is Adaptation Theory?

Commonly, we know the theory of adaptation as the survival of the fittest. It is the ability of an organism to adapt to an environment with time. Charles Darwin, who performed tests on Galapagos Island in the 1830s, is the scientist who went up with his hypothesis.

Many other scientists even before Darwin, such as Empedocles, Aristotle, William Paley, Lamarck, and Buffon, accepted the fact that species changed over time. But did not understand the underlying cause of this change or that adaptation was a continuous process that did not have the final form.

The principle of adaptation proposed that there are three other modifications occurring with environment shift: environment monitoring, genetic change, and extinction. 

Habitat tracking: Organisms that used to reside in the setting are looking for surroundings such as the habitat in which they used to reside. 

Extinction: When species are unable to adjust or migrate out to the fresh setting and discover a fresh atmosphere in which to reside, they ultimately drop out and become extinct. 

Genetic change: Genetic change is the natural selection that enables the organism with minor mutations to superior to endure in a setting relative to the other species in a specified region. 

Example: Darwin noted the tortoises that live on two coasts. On one island, the tortoises fed from the smaller floor because they had smaller arms and flat shells.

When these tortoises moved to another island where the energy supplies were high, tortoises with larger limbs could consume and live and replicate.

Their tails also grew bigger with the moment. And their shells became round and these changes take place on to centuries for the tortoises residing on the island.

Different Types of Adaptation

Structural Adaptation

Structural adjustments are changes in a living organism’s structure to better adapt to an environment.

Example: How desert plants have adapted to desert conditions where very little water is available and high temperatures are available. Moreover, plants called succulents tailored to desert circumstances by collecting their own water to offset the reduced supply of water.

Behavioural Adaptation

Behavioural adaptation is the change in an organism’s behaviour in order to better survive in an environment.

Example: In summer, migration-birds migrate to the west as more meat is accessible.

Physiological Adaptation

Physiological adaptations are a method of the brain that enables an organism to best survive/reproduce in a setting. These changes could be the various methods an organism reacts to the environmental stimuli.

Example: To decrease heat absorption, an animal that lives in cool areas will have characteristics such as dense fur and brief legs. This is the shivering physiological adaptation to produce more heat when it grows hot.


Co-adaptation is when two or more species are symbiotically links together to survive and evolve together.

Example: Humming bees have lengthy beaks that help the bird catch nutrients from particular crops.

Solved Question for You

Question: Plants cultivated under drier circumstances appear to have tiny amounts of stomata on the reduced layer of their leaves to save?

  1. water loss
  2. stored sunlight
  3. to prevent itself from consumers
  4. energy loss

Answer: The correct answer is option A. 

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