Permanent Tissue

Have you ever wondered how the tips of tall plants get water that is absorbed by the roots, deep down in the ground? Is there any special mechanism by which this happens? Well! It is not exactly a mechanism, but a group of specialized cells and tissues that help to carry out this function. You have already learned about one type of plant tissue, i.e. the Meristematic Tissues(Read). Plants also have other types of tissue called the permanent tissue in them. It is one of these tissues that help in the movement of water from the root to the stem.

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Permanent Tissue in Plants

In simple words, the permanent tissues in a plant are those tissues that contain nondividing cells. The cells are also modified to perform specific functions in the plants.  The cells of the permanent tissue are derived from the meristematic tissue.

The permanent tissue cells are also fully differentiated. The cells are large and a definite shape and size. You can see intercellular spaces being present in between the cells. Large vacuoles are also present inside these cells. The metabolism that occurs in the cells of the permanent tissue is fairly at a lower rate.

The permanent tissue in plants mainly helps in providing support, protection as well as in photosynthesis and conduction of water, minerals, and nutrients. Permanent tissue cells may be living or dead.

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Types of Permanent Tissues

Permanent tissues can be classified into two types. They are:

  • Simple permanent tissue
  • Complex Permanent tissue

Permanent Tisuue

Simple Permanent Tissues

These tissues are simple. They are made up of only one type of cell. Here, all the cells that make up the tissue are similar and have the same structure, with the same type parts. Simple permanent tissues are again classified into three main types. They are parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.

  • Parenchyma – The cells of this tissue are living, with thin cell walls. Cells can be oval or round in shape. They have a large central vacuole and a dense cytoplasm. The parenchyma tissue is located in the soft parts of the plant such as cortex and pith. It mainly acts as a packing tissue, providing mechanical support. It also helps in the storage of food. Based on the specific functions, parenchyma can be further classified into Aerenchyma and Chlorenchyma.
  • Collenchyma – These cells are living cells and have an elongated shape. The corners of the cell wall are thickened. There is very little intercellular space present. The collenchyma tissue can be located in the leaf stalks, below the epidermis etc. Its main function is to provide flexibility to the plants as well as mechanical support.
  • Sclerenchyma – The cells of the sclerenchyma tissue are dead. The cell wall is very thick due to the deposition of lignin. The cells of this tissue can be in different shapes and sizes. They are generally located in the leaf veins, hard coverings of the seeds and can also be found surrounding the vascular bundle. The main function of the sclerenchymatic tissue is to provide rigidity and mechanical support to the plant body. They also make the plant stiff and hard.

What are Different Types of Plant Tissues here?

Complex Permanent Tissue

The complex permanent tissues are made up of more than one type of cell. They coordinate together to perform the same specialized functions in the plant body. They are classified into two types – Xylem and Phloem

  • Xylem  The xylem tissue is responsible for the conduction of water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and stem. It also provides support to the plants. It has four elements. They are tracheids, vessels, xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres.
  • Phloem – This complex permanent tissue helps in the translocation of food that is prepared by photosynthesis in the leaves to various parts of the plant. Phloem consists of four elements. They are sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma.

Solved Questions For You

Q: Name the tissues that are present in the various parts of the plants.

Ans. The names are as follows:

  • Husk of a coconut – Sclerenchyma
  • Cortex of the root – Parenchyma
  • Veins of the leaves- Sclerenchyma
  • Vascular bundle – Xylem and Phloem

FAQ’s for You

Q1. What is a permanent tissue? Describe the different types of simple permanent tissue.

Answer: Permanent tissues are a group of living or dead cells which are formed by meristematic tissues that have lost their ability to divide.
That is, these tissues have undergone differentiation and are incapable of meristematic activities.
It is of two types:-
1) Simple permanent tissues 2) Complex permanent tissues
Simple permanent tissues are a group of cells which are similar in origin, structure and function.
They are of three types:-
a) Parenchyma- are unspecialised living cells which have thin cell walls and are loosely packed so that the intercellular spaces are found between cells of this tissue.
Its main function is to support and protect the plants and store food.
b) Collenchyma – are living tissues which also have thin-walled cells but possess thickening of cellulose, water and pectin substances at the corners of the cells.
Its main function is to provide mechanical support, elasticity, and tensile strength to the plants.
c) Sclerenchyma- are tissues consists of thick-walled and dead cells.
The cells have hard and thick walls because of lignin deposition.
It provides mechanical stiffness and strength.

Q2. What are meristmatic and permanent tissue?

Answer: Meristematic tissues are the tissues which are capable to divide. They are active cells which are undifferentiated cells. They have abundant cytoplasm and a clear nucleus. They add cells and contributes in the growth. For example, apical meristematic tissue.
Permanent tissues are the tissues which are specialized and have lost the capacity to divide. They are differentiated cells which has specific function. They have less cytoplasm as compared to meristematic tissues. For example, parenchyma cells.

Q3. A simple, living permanent tissue, which is absent in roots is?

Answer: Permanent tissues are made of meristematic cells, that has definite form and shape and have lost the power to divide and differentiate and are of three types- simple, complex and special. The simple tissues are parenchyma, sclerenchyma and collenchyma.
Chlorenchyma is a parenchyma, having chloroplast. It is a simple permanent tissue, having chloroplast. It is absent in root.

Q4. Permanent tissues are immature in nature.
A. True
B. False

Answer: Permanent tissues are fully matured tissues, firstly they were meristematic but with an increase in time they slowly get converted into permanent tissue and lose their ability to divide and gets the permanent shape, size and function.
So the correct answer is ‘False’.

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