In view of the coronavirus pandemic, we are making LIVE CLASSES and VIDEO CLASSES completely FREE to prevent interruption in studies
Chemistry > Metals and Nonmetals > Ionic Compounds
Metals and Nonmetals

Ionic Compounds

Have you ever wondered what happens when metals and non-metals react? They form ionic bonds which form ionic compounds. An ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Let’s find out more about it.

Suggested Videos

Play
Play
Play
Arrow
Arrow
ArrowArrow
Introduction to Metals
Introduction to Non metals
Occurence of Metals
Slider

What are ionic compounds?

Compounds that consist of ions are known as ionic atoms. Atoms that gain or lose electrons are called ions, ions may have a negative charge or positive charge. Nonmetals lose electrons to gain negative charge and form anions, whereas metals lose electrons to gain positive charge and form cations. Anions are ions that have negative charge and cations are ions that tend to have a positive charge. Ionic bonds are generally between metals and non-metals.

For e.g.  Salt (NaCl) is an ionic bond that consists of Sodium (Na) which is a metal with positive charge combines with Chlorine (Cl), a nonmetal with a negative charge. Another example of an ionic bond is Magnesium Hydroxide Mg(OH)2 which a combination of Magnesium (Mg) and Hydroxide (OH). Here, Magnesium is a metal with cations and Hydroxide is a nonmetal with anions. Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) also known as rust is also an ionic bond, it has metallic compound Iron (Fe) which contains positively charged cations and it has nonmetallic compound Oxygen (O) which contains negatively charged anions.

Browse more Topics under Metals And Nonmetals

Learn more about Physical Properties of Metal and Non-Metals here in detail.

Properties of Ionic Compounds

  • Ionic Compounds have high boiling and melting points as they’re very strong and require a lot of energy to break.
  • The electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions lead to the formation of ions.
  • Ionic compounds form crystals.
  • These compounds are brittle and break into small pieces easily.
  • Electrovalent compounds usually dissolve in water and are insoluble in solvents like oil, petrol, kerosene, etc.
  • Ionic compounds do not conduct electricity in a solid-state but they do conduct electricity in the molten state.
  • In comparison to molecular compounds, ionic compounds have higher enthalpies of fusion and vaporization.

Download Ionic Compounds Cheat Sheet PDF

Formation of Ionic bond

There is only one electron in the outermost shell of Sodium (Na) atom and if it loses that electron from its outermost shell i.e. the M shell then the L shell becomes the outermost shell and it has a stable octet. There are eleven protons in the nucleus of this atom but the number of electrons has become ten, this gives the sodium atom a positive charge and creates a sodium cation Na+. Whereas, on the other hand, there are seven atoms in the outermost shell of the Chlorine (Cl) atom then it needs one more electron to complete its octet.

Learn more about Corrosion here in detail.

If Sodium and Chlorine reacted then the electron lost by sodium would be taken by Chlorine. After this process, the chlorine atom would have a negative charge, because it would have seventeen protons in its nucleus and there would be eighteen electrons in its K, L and M shells. This gives the Chlorine atom a negative charge. Hence, the negatively charged Chlorine and positively charged Sodium creates an Ionic bond or an Electrovalent compound.

Learn more about the Occurrence of Metals here.

Solved Example for you :

Q: State whether the following statement is true or false. Sodium Chloride has a higher melting point than Magnesium Oxide. Justify your answer.

Ans.  The following statement is True. Magnesium Oxide (MgO) has a higher melting point than Sodium Chloride (NaCl) which is around 2,800 degrees Celcius. This is because its Mg2+ and O2- ions have a greater number of charges, and so form stronger ionic bonds, than the Na+ and Cl ions in Sodium Chloride. Because it stays solid at such high temperatures, magnesium oxide remains non-conductive and is used for high temperature electrical insulation.

Share with friends

Customize your course in 30 seconds

Which class are you in?
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
12th
Get ready for all-new Live Classes!
Now learn Live with India's best teachers. Join courses with the best schedule and enjoy fun and interactive classes.
tutor
tutor
Ashhar Firdausi
IIT Roorkee
Biology
tutor
tutor
Dr. Nazma Shaik
VTU
Chemistry
tutor
tutor
Gaurav Tiwari
APJAKTU
Physics
Get Started

10
Leave a Reply

avatar
5 Comment threads
5 Thread replies
3 Followers
 
Most reacted comment
Hottest comment thread
10 Comment authors
JoeKopwCaseyBryanRahil Recent comment authors
  Subscribe  
newest oldest most voted
Notify of
Sandeep
Guest
Sandeep

Name a meatal which we can cut with a knife

sagar singh
Guest
sagar singh

Potassium, sodium and lithium

Diya rawat
Guest
Diya rawat

sodium and pottasium

Hsi
Guest
Hsi

Potassium

Bigyan
Guest
Bigyan

Lead

Rahil
Guest
Rahil

Sodium

Manya Shukla
Guest
Manya Shukla

Sodium(Na)

arshia
Guest
arshia

sodium can be cut with knife because it is very soft at room temperatures

Anish Jadhav
Guest
Anish Jadhav

Sodium is a soft metal which can be cut with a knife

Adarsh singh
Guest
Adarsh singh

Potassium and sodium

Adarsh singh
Guest
Adarsh singh

Sodium, potassium

Harsh
Guest
Harsh

Sodium , pottasium , lithium .

Sneha
Guest
Sneha

Potassium and sodium

Uspenj
Guest
Uspenj

Hello

dave
Guest
dave

why is everyone here Indian

Joe
Guest
Joe

no

Uspenj
Guest
Uspenj

Sodium and potassium

Taishika
Guest
Taishika

Sodium and potassium

Shraddha
Guest
Shraddha

Murcury

Adarsh
Guest
Adarsh

Sodium and potassium

Payal
Guest
Payal

…with whom specially metals 3.point with whom it is related from non metals

Bryan
Guest
Bryan

Sodium

Casey
Guest
Casey

Name a non metal which can cut a knife

Kopw
Guest
Kopw

What’s the. Most important chemical property of nonmetals

Roxanne
Guest
Roxanne

They tend to have low melting and boiling point

Stuck with a

Question Mark?

Have a doubt at 3 am? Our experts are available 24x7. Connect with a tutor instantly and get your concepts cleared in less than 3 steps.
toppr Code

chance to win a

study tour
to ISRO

Download the App

Watch lectures, practise questions and take tests on the go.

Get Question Papers of Last 10 Years

Which class are you in?
No thanks.