Ancient Indian History

The Harappan Culture and Different Civilization

Harappan civilization or the Indus valley civilization is one of the best excavation of 20th centuries. The northern parts of ancient India were the location of this great civilization. To know more about the Harappan civilization and other civilization explore the article further!

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Harappan Civilization

Harappan Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization or the Harappan Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization alongside the Egyptian civilization. River Ravi was running along the Harappan civilization and therefore the civilians always had a water supply.  Present Afghanistan, Pakistan, and northwest of India is the Harappan civilization of 3300-1900 BC. As this civilization flourished during the bronze age the metallurgy of this civilization was one of the best and efficient.

The occupations like Fishing, Farming, Jewelling, Trading, and pottery were some of the Harappa’s peoples occupation. This civilization was one the advanced civilization of that time. Wheels were invented during this period and hence pottery was established as the main occupation of Harappa’s people.

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Different Civilization

Harappan pottery

Along with Indus Valley Civilization, there is much more civilization besides it in India. Rulers of the civilization define the civilization of that era. some different civilization in India was

  • Indus Valley civilization

This civilization dates to 5000 BCE and has great developments in architecture and drainage systems. Mohen-J0-Daro is the great site of excavation of this civilization, currently in present-day Pakistan. The population of this civilization was over 30,000 people. This civilization was also engaged in spirituality.

  • Arya civilization

The Aryan civilization or the Vedic period of India has established the Vedas and other rituals.  This period also introduced the caste system in India. The caste system had 4 divisions namely Brahmana, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra. Trading of goods and other materials started during this period.

  • Classic Age

This preceded by the Vedic age of Indian civilization. This period lasted from 700 BCE to 350 BCE. Its origin is in the tribal race of the Indo – European parts and was instituted by warrior chief of the civilization. It was an age of creativity as writing and creation of alphabets. Trading goods and other agricultural activities like watering and fertilizing the farms.

  • Religious Start

This era witnesses the spread of two religions  Buddhism and Jainism. This period was invoked in the 6th century. Jainism was started by Mahavira and therefore was titled as” The Great Hero”.  Jainism promoted self-torture. Buddhism was started by Guatum Siddharta and therefore was titled as ‘The Enlighted one”. Both these religions release the worldly desires.

  • Mauryas

Maurya era was led by Chandragupta Maurya of Magadha and also defeated the kongs of Indus Valley civilization. Maurya empire was the largest empire of that period. Alexender the great attacked India during those time Chandragupta Maurya rebelled and conquer many states in India.

Ashoka was the successor of Bindusar. He was Kwon for his welfare skills and also the administration. After the war with Kalinga, witnessing the bloodshed. He henceforth obtained the path of peace and therefore walk on the path of the Buddhist religion.

  • End of Maurya

After king Ashoka, the successors were unable to manage the throne.  Hence led to fragmentations is the empire and also the decline of Maurya empire was initiated. The economy failed and had a devastating effect on the kingdom.

Question For You

Q1. The archaeological finds from Alamgirpur in Meerut district reflected the _______.

  1. Harappa Culture
  2. Vedic Culture
  3. Mauryan Culture
  4. Gupta Period Culture

Answer: The answer is option ”a”. The archaeological finds from Alamgirpur in Meerut district reflected the Harappan culture. Alamgirpur was discovered in 1959. This site shows the presence of Harappan civilization to the east of Yamuna river.It was the easternmost territory of the Indus valley civilization.Vedic Culture started in Indian sub-continent from 1500 BC onwards.

Q2. The polity of the Harappan people, as derived from the material evidence, was _______.

  1. secular-federalist
  2. theocratic-federalist
  3. oligarchic
  4. theocratic-unitary

Answer: The answer is the option ”d”. Theocracy means that a deity is the source of power for the Government. The design of the citadel in Harappan cities led many to suggest that Harappan polity was a theocracy. Many buildings are considered to have been of ceremonial or ritualistic purpose. For example, the processional terraces with guard rooms at Harappa. A unitary government is one in which the central Govt is supreme and the administrative units derive their power mainly from the central Govt. The standardization in the layout of Harappan cities, weights and measures, burial customs, extensive and coordinated trade networks suggest the unitary form of Govt.

Q3. The Harappan site located on the Iranian border was __________.

  1. Sutkagendor
  2. Surkotada
  3. Kotla Nihangkhan
  4. Alamgirpur

Answer: The answer is option ”a”. Since the Harappan site located on the Iranian border was Sutkagendor. Sutkagendor- This is the trading post located in the Baluchistan area bordering Iran(current map of the world). This trading post was supporting the trade with the Persian Gulf.

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