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Basic Science

Basic Chemistry

Chemistry is the branch of science concerned with the substances of which matter is composed, the investigation of their properties and reactions, and the use of such reactions to form new substances. Let’s find out more about Basic Chemistry.

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Introduction to Basic Chemistry

basic chemistry

Chemistry is the science and study of matter, including its properties, composition as well as reactivity. Chemistry relates to everything that can be sensed from the minute elements to complex structures. The atom and molecules are the basic unit or components of Chemistry. The study of chemists is always interested in identifying and knowing how the chemical transformation occurs. It plays an essential role in science and plays a central role in daily life activities.

The principles of chemicals are quite varied and are essentially important which includes brain functioning, computer operations, weather patterns, chemical industries, manufacturing fertilizers, acids, alkalis, salts, drugs, soaps, etc. Chemistry also acts as a major determinant in meeting the human needs for food, healthcare products, and also other materials that are aimed at improving the life’s quality.

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Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Nature of Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass is defined as matter. Every that is around us including the pen, book, pencil, air, all living beings are composed of matter. They all have mass and occupies space. The matter only moves from one phase to another by the physical means. One can create a physical change if energy is added which means the temperature is increased or energy is taken away stating something is frozen. The matter exists in three states or physical states i.e. Solids, Liquids, and Gases.

Solids are those particles that are held very tightly to each other and they do not have enough freedom to move. The solids have definite volume and definite shape. For example – Ceramic Bowls which are made from soft clay and is heated up initially and later slowly cooled. The clay becomes hard as the water is removed and chemical bonds are changed inside the clay.

Liquids are those particles that are close to each other but have the freedom to move around. They have a definite volume but no definite shape and they take the shape of the container. The examples of liquid are – Oceans, Lakes, and rivers.

Gases are those particles that stay apart from each other with easy and fast movement. It neither has definite volume nor definite shape. They occupy the space completely. For example – Balloons which isn’t a gas, however, the helium ( gas ) inside the balloon is gas. It is a noble gas which has very low atomic mass and when in a gaseous state, it is lighter than the air.

These three states of matter are easily interconvertible by changing the conditions of the pressure and temperature.

Solid ——————— Liquid ————————- Gas

On heating a solid, it changes to the state of liquid. On further heating the liquid, it changes into gas or the vapor state. If reversed, a gas when cooled, it liquefies to liquid and on further cooling the liquid it freezes in solids.

Questions: Fill in the blanks.

  1. I am a state of matter; my molecules are close together and hardly move. I am  a ________________.
  2. I am a state of matter; my molecules are jumping all over the place. I must be a _______________.
  3. If the molecules in a substance are arranged in a tight, patterned kind of way, the matter must be in which state?

Solution.

  1. Solid
  2. Gas
  3. Solid
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