 # Mathematical Symbols

We use the mathematical symbols for performing numerous operations in mathematics as well as in science. Moreover, these mathematical symbols make it much easier for us to refer the mathematical quantities and values. In addition, it also helps in an easier denotation. However, it’s quite interesting to notice that the whole of the maths is entirely based on these symbols and the numbers at the same time. Furthermore, these mathematical symbols not only refer to multiple quantities but also represent a relationship between 2 quantities. On the other hand, there are various symbols in mathematics that already have some predefined values.

### Importance of Mathematical Symbols

• Mathematical symbols help us in denoting various quantities.
• It establishes the relationship between 2 different quantities.
• These symbols also helps in identifying the type of operation.
• These symbols make the reference much easier.
• The mathematical symbols are world-wide applicable and break the language barrier globally.

### Some Basic Mathematical Symbols with Names, Meaning, and Examples

 Symbol Name Meaning Example ≠ not equal sign inequality 10 ≠ 6 = equals sign equality 3 = 1 + 2 < strict inequality less than 7 < 10 > strict inequality greater than 6 > 2 ≤ inequality less than or equal to x ≤ y, means, y = x or y > x, but not vice-versa. ≥ inequality greater than or equal to a ≥ b, means, a = b or a > b, but vice-versa does not hold true. [ ] brackets calculate expression inside first [ 2×5] + 7 = 17 ( ) parentheses calculate expression inside first 3 × (3 + 7) = 30 − minus sign subtraction 5 − 2 = 3 + plus sign addition 4 + 5 = 9 ∓ minus – plus both minus and plus operations 1 ∓ 4 = -3 and 5 ± plus – minus both plus and minus operations 5 ± 3 = 8 and 2 × times sign multiplication 4 × 3 = 12 * asterisk multiplication 2 * 3 = 6 ÷ division sign / obelus division 15 ÷ 5 = 3 ∙ multiplication dot multiplication 2 ∙ 3 = 6 – horizontal line division / fraction 8/2 = 4 / division slash division 6 ⁄ 2 = 3 mod modulo remainder calculation 7 mod 3 = 1 ab power exponent 24 = 16 . period decimal point, decimal separator 4.36 = 4 +36/100 √a square root √a · √a = a √9 = ±3 a^b caret exponent 2 ^ 3 = 8 4√a fourth root 4√a ·4√a · 4√a · 4√a = a 4√16= ± 2 3√a cube root 3√a ·3√a · 3√a = a 3√343 = 7 % per cent 1% = 1/100 10% × 30 = 3 n√a n-th root (radical) n√a · n√a · · · n time = a for n=3, n√8 = 2 ppm per-million 1 ppm = 1/1000000 10ppm × 30 = 0.0003 ‰ per-mille 1‰ = 1/1000 = 0.1% 10‰ × 30 = 0.3 ppt per-trillion 1ppt = 10-12 10ppt × 30 = 3×10-10 ppb per-billion 1 ppb = 1/1000000000 10 ppb × 30 = 3×10-7

### Some Mathematical Logic Symbols with Name, Meaning, and Examples

 Symbol Name Meaning Example ^ caret / circumflex and x ^ y · and and x · y + plus or x + y & ampersand and x & y | vertical line or x | y ∨ reversed caret or x ∨ y x bar not – negation x x‘ single-quote not – negation x’ ! exclamation mark not – negation ! x ¬ not not – negation ¬ x ~ tilde negation ~ x ⊕ circled plus / oplus exclusive or – xor x ⊕ y ⇔ equivalent if and only if (iff) ⇒ implies n/a n/a ∀ for all n/a n/a ↔ equivalent if and only if (iff) n/a ∄ there does not exist n/a n/a ∃ there exists n/a n/a ∵ because / since n/a n/a ∴ therefore n/a n/a

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