Before we get into the domain and range of trigonometric functions, letâ€™s understand what is a domain and range of any function. A function is nothing but a rule which is applied to the values inputted. The set of values that can be used as inputs for the function is called the domain of the function.

For e.g. for the function f(x) = âˆšx, the input value cannot be a negative number since the square root of a negative number is not a real number. A range of a function is the set of output values for different input values. For e.g. for the function f(x) = x^{2} + 5, the range would be {5, 6, 7, â€¦..}.

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## Domain and Range of Trigonometric Functions

We know that the sine and cosine functions are defined for all real numbers. We also know that for each real number â€˜xâ€™,

-1 â‰¤ \( \sin{x} \)Â â‰¤ 1 andÂ -1 â‰¤ \( \cos{x} \)Â â‰¤ 1.

**Browse more Topics Under Trigonometric Functions**

- Measurement of Angles
- Introduction to Trigonometric Functions
- Domain and Range of Trigonometric functions
- Compound Angles
- Trigonometric Equations

Therefore,

- the domain of y = \( \sin{x} \) and y = \( \cos{x} \) is the set of all real numbers
- the range is the interval [-1, 1], orÂ -1 â‰¤ yÂ â‰¤ 1.

**Cosec x or \( \csc{x} \)**

We know that,Â \( \csc{x} \) = \( \frac{1}{\sin {x}} \). Therefore,

- the domain of y = \( \csc{x} \) is the set {x: x âˆˆ R and xÂ â‰ nÏ€, nÂ âˆˆ Z}
- the range is the set {y:Â y âˆˆ R, yÂ â‰¥ 1 or yÂ â‰¤ -1}

**\( \sec{x} \)**

We know that,Â \( \sec{x} \) =Â \( \frac{1}{\cos {x}} \). Therefore,

- the domain of y =Â \( \sec{x} \) is the set {x: x âˆˆ R and xÂ â‰ (2n + 1)\( \frac{\pi}{2} \), nÂ âˆˆ Z }
- the range is the set {y: yÂ âˆˆ R and yÂ â‰¤ -1 or yÂ â‰¥ 1}

**\( \tan{x} \)**

We know that,Â \( \tan{x} \) =Â \( \frac{\sin {x}}{\cos{x}} \). Therefore,

- the domain of y =Â \( \tan{x} \) is the set {x: x âˆˆ R and xÂ â‰ (2n + 1)\( \frac{\pi}{2} \), nÂ âˆˆ Z }
- the range is the set of all real numbers

**\( \cot{x} \)**

We know that,Â \( \cot{x} \) =Â \( \frac{\cos {x}}{\sin{x}} \). Therefore,

- the domain of y =Â \( \cot{x} \) is the set {x: x âˆˆ R and xÂ â‰ nÏ€, nÂ âˆˆ Z}
- the range is the set of all real numbers.

The following table describes the behavior of these trigonometric functions in all four quadrants where x increases from 0 toÂ \( \frac{\pi}{2} \),Â \( \frac{\pi}{2} \) toÂ Ï€,Â Ï€ toÂ \( \frac{3\pi}{2} \), andÂ \( \frac{3\pi}{2} \) to 2Ï€.

Quadrant I | Quadrant II | Quadrant III | Quadrant IV | |

sin | increases from 0Â â†’ 1 | decreases from 1Â â†’ 0 | decreases from 0Â â†’ -1 | increases from -1 â†’ 0 |

cos | decreases from 1Â â†’ 0 | decreases from 0Â â†’ -1 | increases from -1Â â†’ 0 | increases from 0Â â†’ 1 |

tan | increases from 0Â â†’ âˆž | increases from -âˆžÂ â†’ 0 | increases from 0Â â†’ âˆž | increases from -âˆžÂ â†’ 0 |

cot | decreases from âˆžÂ â†’ 0 | decreases from 0Â â†’ -âˆž | decreases from âˆžÂ â†’ 0 | decreases from 0Â â†’ -âˆž |

sec | increases from 1Â â†’ âˆž | increases from -âˆžÂ â†’ -1 | decreases from -1 â†’ -âˆž | decreases from âˆž â†’ 1 |

cosec | decreases from âˆž â†’ 1 | increases from 1Â â†’ âˆž | increases from -âˆžÂ â†’ -1 | decreases from -1 â†’ -âˆž |

## Graphical Representations of Trigonometric Functions

We already know that the values ofÂ \( \sin{x} \) andÂ \( \cos{x} \) repeat after an interval of 2Ï€. This can be shown as follows:

Hence, the values ofÂ \( \sec{x} \) andÂ \( \csc{x} \) will also repeat after an interval ofÂ 2Ï€. This can be shown as follows:

However, the values of \( \tan{x} \) repeat after an interval ofÂ Ï€. Also, the values of \( \cot{x} \) which is the inverse ofÂ \( \tan{x} \) will repeat afterÂ an interval ofÂ Ï€. This can be shown as follows:

Let’s look at some examples on domain and range of trigonometric functions now:

### Example 1

If \( \cos{x} \) = â€“ \( \frac{3}{5} \), where x lies in the third quadrant, then find the values of other fiveÂ trigonometric functions.

Solution: SinceÂ \( \cos{x} \) = â€“ \( \frac{3}{5} \), we haveÂ \( \sec{x} \) = â€“ \( \frac{5}{3} \).

Now, we know that, \( \sin^2{x} \) +Â \( \cos^2{x} \) = 1

âˆ´Â \( \sin^2{x} \) = 1 –Â \( \cos^2{x} \) = 1 –Â \( \frac{9}{25} \) =Â \( \frac{16}{25} \)

âˆ´Â \( \sin{x} \) =Â Â±Â \( \frac{4}{5} \).

However, according to the problem, x lies in the third quadrant. Hence,

\( \sin{x} \) =Â –Â \( \frac{4}{5} \)

Since,Â \( \csc{x} \) = \( \frac{1}{\sin {x}} \), we have

\( \csc{x} \) =Â –Â \( \frac{5}{4} \)

Finally,Â \( \tan{x} \) =Â \( \frac{\sin {x}}{\cos {x}} \). Therefore,

\( \tan{x} \) =Â \( \frac{-\frac{4}{5}}{-\frac {3}{5}} \) =Â \( \frac{4}{3} \).

And,Â \( \cot{x} \) =Â \( \frac{1}{\tan {x}} \). Therefore,

\( \cot{x} \) =Â \( \frac{3}{4} \).

*Learn Compound Angles here in detail.Â *

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## More Solved Examples for You

**Question 1: If \( \cot{x} \) = \( \frac{3}{4} \), where x lies in the third quadrant, then find the values of other fiveÂ trigonometric functions.**

**Answer :** We know that,Â \( \cot{x} \) =Â \( \frac{1}{\tan {x}} \). Therefore,

\( \tan{x} \) =Â \( \frac{1}{\cot {x}} \) =Â \( \frac{1}{\frac {3}{4}} \) =Â \( \frac{4}{3} \).

We also know that,

\( \sec^2{x} \) = 1 +Â \( \tan^2{x} \) = 1 +Â \( (\frac{4}{3})^2 \) = 1 +Â \( \frac{16}{9} \) =Â \( \frac{25}{9} \)

âˆ´Â \( \sec{x} \) =Â Â±Â \( \frac{5}{3} \).

Since x lies in the third quadrant, the value of \( \sec{x} \) will be negative. Therefore,

\( \sec{x} \) =Â –Â \( \frac{5}{3} \).

Next,Â \( \cos{x} \) = \( \frac{1}{\sec {x}} \) =Â \( \frac{1}{-\frac {5}{3}} \) = – \( \frac{3}{5} \)

Now,Â \( \tan{x} \) = \( \frac{\sin {x}}{\cos {x}} \). Hence,

\( \sin{x} \) =Â \( \tan{x} \).\( \cos{x} \) = (\( \frac{4}{3} \)) x (\( -\frac{3}{5} \)) = – \( \frac{4}{5} \).

Finally,Â \( \csc{x} \) =Â \( \frac{1}{\sin {x}} \) =Â \( \frac{1}{-\frac {4}{5}} \) = – \( \frac{5}{4} \).

**Question 2: What is meant by domain and range?**

**Answer:** Domain means the set of possible input values. The domain of a graph involves all the input values which are represented on the x-axis. The range means the set of possible output values whose representation takes place on the y-axis.

**Question 3: How can one find the domain of a function?**

**Answer:** One can determine the domain of each function by looking for independent variables values which one is allowed to use. Usually one must avoid 0 on the fractionâ€™s bottom and the negative values which are under the square root sign.

**Question 4: How can one find the range of a function?**

**Answer:** One can find the range of a function by the following steps:

- The range of a function happens to the spread of possible y-values.
- Substitution of different x-values into the expression for y so as to understand what is going on.
- One must look for the minimum as well as the maximum values of y.
- Represent this by drawing a sketch

**Question 5: What is meant by a function?**

**Answer:** A function refers to an expression that shows the relationship between the one variable and another variable.

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