NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 will strengthen a student’s ability to grasp this chapter of Physics. Thermodynamics is the hot topic for the experts who prepare question papers. These NCERT Solutions is extremely helpful in completing the syllabus and getting a better level of understanding. It will also help students to do their homework in an easy way.
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CBSE Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics NCERT Solutions
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics will provide you the answers to the questions from the textbook. Thermodynamics is very scoring sections in Class 11 Physics. Students must study this chapter in-depth for best performance in the exam.
Subtopics covered under NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics Chapter 12
- 12.1: Introduction
- 12.2: Thermal equilibrium
- 12.3: Zeroth law of Thermodynamics
- 12.4: Heat, internal energy, and work
- 12.5: First law of thermodynamics
- 12.6: Specific heat capacity
- 12.7: Thermodynamic state variables and the equation of state
- 12.8: Thermodynamic processes
- 12.8.1: Quasi-static process
- 12.9: Heat engines
- 12.10: Refrigerators and heat pumps
- 12.11: The second law of thermodynamics
- 12.12: Reversible and irreversible processes
- 12.13: Carnot Engine
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics Chapter 12
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics help students to understand this fundamental chapter of Physics. Equilibrium in thermodynamics refers to the situation when state variables describing the thermodynamic state of a system is independent of time.
Equilibrium of a system in mechanics means the net external force on the system is zero. The temperature of a body is related to its average internal energy and not to the kinetic energy of. Heat capacity, in general, depends on the process of the system that goes through when the heat is supplied.
Let us discuss the sub-topics in detail.
The student will study in this chapter the laws that govern thermal energy. They will study the processes where work is converted into heat and vice versa.
12.2: Thermal equilibrium:
State of a system is an equilibrium if the state variables that characterize the system do not change in time. In general, the state of equilibrium depends on the surroundings and the nature of the wall separating the system from the surroundings.
12.3: Zeroth law of Thermodynamics:
This law states that two systems in thermal equilibrium with a third system separately are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
12.4: Heat, internal energy, and work:
The notion of heat should be carefully differentiated from the notion of internal energy. Heat is certainly energy and also it is the energy in transit.
12.5: First law of thermodynamics:
It states that the energy supplied to the system goes in part to increase the internal energy of the system. The student will learn the equation for the First Law of Thermodynamics.
12.6: Specific heat capacity:
Specific heat capacity of a substance plays an important role in thermodynamics.
12.7: Thermodynamic state variables and the equation of state:
The equilibrium state of a thermodynamic system fully describes the specific values of some macroscopic variables i.e. state variables.
12.8: Thermodynamic processes:
The student will study various thermodynamics processes in this section.
12.8.1: Quasi-static process:
A quasi-static process is a hypothetical construct. It explains about Adiabatic process, Isochoric process, Isobaric process, etc.
12.9: Heat engines:
These are devices by which a system is made to undergo a cyclic process and which result in the conversion of heat to work.
12.10: Refrigerators and heat pumps:
A refrigerator is having the reverse process of a heat engine. Also, a heat pump is the same as a refrigerator.
12.11: The second law of thermodynamics:
This law gives a fundamental limitation to the efficiency of a heat engine and the co-efficient of performance of a refrigerator.
12.12: Reversible and irreversible processes:
A thermodynamic process from state i to state f is reversible if the process can be turned back and both the system and the surroundings return to their original states.
12.13: Carnot Engine:
We wish the ideal engine operating between two temperatures to be a reversible engine. It is an ideal engine. No engine can perform better than it.
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