Bridge construction is one of the key elements of physics and civil engineering. Furthermore, the basic principles of bridge construction or design are dependent on the load-bearing structure; whether convex, concave, or flat.
Introduction to Bridge Construction
Bridge construction is characterized by huge projects that include the utilization of skills related to various engineering disciplines including mechanical, geology, electrical, civil, and computer sciences. Moreover, the preparation of the initial plans must take place regarding the project, including the site details, the characteristics of the desired bridge, and the requirement of resources.
The determination of the bridge design takes place by the type of bridge whose construction is to take place. The main types of bridges are arch, cantilever, truss, beam, and suspension. Moreover, categorization of the bridges can take place by the planned use, pedestrian pavement, material to be used like concrete or steel, and moveable or fixed.
When it comes to constructing a bridge, basic constructions of the foundations is the first step. Furthermore, this step involves specific detailed geotechnical investigations of the bridge site. Moreover, experts must select the type of bridge foundation, like the opened foundation, well foundation, and pile foundation.
An important point to note is that each foundation is appropriate for specific soil strata, and the desired bridge characteristics. Furthermore, the soil characteristics will determine important parameters like the load-bearing capacity. Also, the design of the superstructure is basically in accordance with the aesthetic reasons, technical requirements, and the construction methodology.
The execution of the excavation needed for the foundations must be in accordance with the sizeable depths, involving hard ground, before the reaching of the solid rocks. Furthermore, there will be involvement of engineering feats to avoid water, and avoid the diggings collapsing. Also, there may be subjecting of tunnels to sudden failures.
Bridge Construction Equipment
Extensive usage of heavy equipment takes place during the bridge construction. Furthermore, this involves using formworks, excavators, bulldozers, asphalt mixers, and fabrication equipment. Also, there must be a thorough identification of the construction and other equipment in accordance with their capability and other important functions.
The experts here must consider the foundation and the superstructure design. Furthermore, cautious use of this expensive equipment must take place in order to achieve an optimum advantage.
A bridge is designed keeping in mind the various loads that shall act on it. When it comes to loads, dynamic loads hold a prime significance. Furthermore, the design of a bridge is such that it is able to endure the normal vehicle loads and other forces whose creation is due to earthquakes and winds.
The collapse of several bridges takes place due to high-speed winds. Moreover, even in the case of low wind speeds, the dynamic forces can still turn out to be excessive for the bridge to be able to resist. Initially, the violent vibrations may happen on the bridge, thereby causing the structure to fail at some weak elements, or even ruin the major components.
Investigations conducted after bridge failures have shown that the real forces on such bridges were significantly less in comparison to the loads for which the bridge was constructed. However, the creation of the oscillations because of the winds was enough to cause the failure.
Therefore, there may be a need for special reinforcement as prevention against earthquakes and high-speed winds. Thus, the use of lighter materials takes place whose arrangement takes place in suitable geometric structures. Also, the configuration must be aerodynamically stable.
Testing of Bridges
Since bridge construction project is an expensive project, it is really important that all necessary tests take place before the beginning of the actual construction. Furthermore, these tests and investigations can reveal bridge behaviour under various different dynamic loads. Moreover, experts must use computer-aided design and testing in order to assist in the bridge design.
FAQs For Bridge Construction
Question 1: What are the essential heavy bridge construction equipment?
Answer 1: The essential heavy bridge construction equipment involves formworks, excavators, bulldozers, asphalt mixers, and fabrication equipment.
Question 2: What are the various types of bridges whose construction can take place?
Answer 2: The various types of bridges whose construction can take place are arch, cantilever, truss, beam, and suspension.