Water: A Precious Resource

Depletion of Water Table

Does the earth have the same amount of water it had in the beginning? Yes, the water always gets recycled naturally.  That’s why there is never a scarcity of a sea water, however, there is a scarcity of fresh water. Let’s find out more about the Depletion of Water Table.

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Introduction to Depletion of Water Table

Depletion of water means scarcity of water which means that there is a lack of water. Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available freshwater resources to meet water demand. It affects every continent. It is manifested by partial or no satisfaction of expressed demand, economic competition for water quantity or quality, disputes between users, irreversible depletion of groundwater, and negative impacts on the environment.

Water Table

Half of the largest cities in the world experience a scarcity of water. Although a mere 0.014% of all water on Earth is both fresh and easily accessible (of the remaining water, 97% is saline and a little less than 3% is hard to access), technically, there is a sufficient amount of fresh water on a global scale, for humanity to get by.

Causes of Depletion of Water Table

Water Table

The two main causes of Depletion of Water Table are Deforestation and Over-pumping of groundwater.

Deforestation

Deforestation(Read more in detail) means to clear the forest land by cutting the trees and shrubs and converting it into a commercial or a residential land. It has an adverse effect on the water table. Forests transport large quantities of water into the atmosphere via plant transpiration. As the deforestation occurs, there is no rain in that area, flowing away as river water and causing permanent drying.

Over-pumping of groundwater

Groundwater is water which seeps into the ground and gets collected. This groundwater can be obtained by drilling or digging wells or by pumping. Over-pumping of groundwater reduces the level of groundwater level. Excessive pumping in coastal areas can cause saltwater to move inland and upward, resulting in saltwater contamination of the water supply.

Questions For You

Q1. Which of the following is true regarding how increasing population helps in depletion of the water table?

  1. Increasing population creates demand for construction of houses, shops, offices, roads, and pavements.
  2. This decreases the open areas like parks and playgrounds.
  3. This, in turn, decreases the seepage of rainwater into the ground.
  4. All of the above

Sol: The correct answer is the option ”d”. All of the following are true. Increasing population creates demand for construction of houses, shops, offices, roads, and pavements. This decreases the open areas like parks and playgrounds. This, in turn, decreases the seepage of rainwater into the ground.

Q2. Identify the reason for water scarcity.

  1. Increasing rate of population
  2. Increasing rate of industries
  3. Both A and B
  4. None of the above

Sol: The correct answer is the option ”d”. 70% of the earth’s surface is covered with water, yet only around 3%  is fit for human consumption. The remaining is frozen or salty. The consumption of water goes on increasing due to population, eventually leading to scarcity of water. The industrial wastes pollute the water reservoirs, making it unfit for human consumption.

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