Attraction is the basic property of the magnets. Magnet attracts metallic objects like iron, nickel, and cobalt. But did you know metal is useful in generating electricity as well? What else can magnets do? What are the applications of magnets? Let us find out!
List of Properties of Magnet:
We already know that magnets are made up of the magnetic substance. Magnets have certain important properties. They are:
- Attractive Property – Magnet attracts ferromagnetic materials like iron, cobalt, and nickel.
- Repulsive Properties – Like magnetic poles repel each other and unlike magnetic poles attract each other.
- Directive Property – A freely suspended magnet always points in a north-south direction.
Magnets attract other magnetic substances. This property can be demonstrated with the help of a simple activity.
- Materials needed: A bar magnet, iron filings
- Method: Place the bar magnet in the heap of iron filings.
- Observation: Iron filings cling to the magnet. Also, the maximum amount of iron filings cling at the two ends of the bar magnet. These are the poles of the magnet.
- Inference: The Magnetic property of poles is more than the rest of the magnet. Poles of the magnet are those regions where the magnetic property is the maximum. The two poles are different. One pole of the magnet is the North pole and the other is the South Pole. Every magnet whether big or small has the North Pole and the South Pole.
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Repulsive Properties of Magnet
Like magnetic poles repel each other and unlike magnetic poles attract each other. Property of attraction and repulsion exists between two magnets. It can be demonstrated with the help of a simple activity.
- Materials needed: Two bar magnets
- Method: Take two bar magnets. Try to bring them close to each other in such a way that both the like poles come closer. Now bring North pole of one magnet close to the south pole of another.
- Observation: If the two poles you are trying to bring closer are the same ie. Both are North poles or both are south poles, then the two poles will repel each other. If you are trying to bring the opposite poles together there will be a force of attraction between the two magnets.
- Inference: Like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other.
Directive Property of the Magnet
A freely suspended magnet always points in north-south direction This can be demonstrated with the help of a simple activity.
- Materials needed: A bar magnet, a string, a stand
- Method: Take a bar magnet. Tie it with a string from the centre and hang it on the wooden stand in such a way that it can move freely.
- Observation: The freely suspended magnet points in the north-south direction.
- Explanation: Our planet earth also shows magnetism. The Earth is actually a giant bar magnet with its magnetic north pole towards the Geographic South Pole and the magnetic South Pole towards the Geographic North Pole. Hence, we can observe that north pole of a freely suspended magnet points toward the north pole of the earth and south pole of a freely suspended magnet points towards the South Pole of the earth.
Applications of Magnets
A magnet is used to separate the useful magnetic substance like steel and iron from waste by the method of magnetic separation. This is done as follows. An electromagnet is fitted to the long arm of the crane. This is lowered over the heap of waste material and electromagnet is switched on.
The old iron and steel objects present in the heap of waste material gets attracted by the Electromagnet and stick to it. The arm of the crane with iron and steel objects sticking to the Electromagnet is now lifted up and the crane is moved to another place. Now the current is switched off. The electromagnet loses its magnetism. The waste is dropped and collected at a separate place.
Directive property of magnet is used to prepare magnetic compass. Compass is an instrument which is used to find the directions. Compass consist of a tiny magnetic needle which is pivoted from the center and is free to rotate. The compass has a circular dial in which directions are marked. The needle of the compass always points in the north-south direction. It is used by soldiers in the Jungle and sailors in the sea to find directions. Applications of magnets include various appliances like electric motor, doorbell, fan, washing machine, television, electric generator and various types of toys.
Magnets are used to hold objects like the doors of the refrigerator, pencil box lids, magnetic stickers etc.
Questions For You
Q1. Poles are not marked in a bar magnet. How will you find out its poles?
Ans: To find out the poles, we will take another bar magnet with known poles. We will bring one of the poles of the given magnet close to the north pole of the magnet. If it attracts the pole is the south pole. If it repels it is North pole.
Q2. You are provided with two identical metal bars. One out of the two is a magnet. Suggest two ways to identify the magnet.
Ans: Both are freely suspended. One who will align in the north-south direction is a magnet, Bring a magnet close to both the metal bars and test with both the poles. One who shows repulsion is a magnet.