Resources of India and World

Agriculture of India and World

Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe and included a diverse range of taxa. Eleven separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centres of origin. Indians practice Agriculture since the times of Indus Valley Civilization. Green Revolution is the biggest revolution in Agriculture. To know more about Agriculture in India and World explore the article further!

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The word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, “field”, which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, and cultūra, “cultivation” or “growing”. To practice agriculture means to use natural resources to “produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fibre forest products, horticultural crops, and their related services.

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Agriculture Across the World

In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Farmers grew wheat, barley, vegetables such as lentils and onions, and fruits including dates, grapes, and figs.  Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on the Nile River and its seasonal flooding.

Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In China, from the 5th century BC, there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use by the 1st century BC, followed by irrigation. These slowly spread westwards across Eurasia.

In ancient Greece and Rome, the major cereals were wheat, emmer, and barley, alongside vegetables including peas, beans, and olives. Sheep and goats were kept mainly for dairy products. In America, crops domesticated in Mesoamerica (apart from teosinte) include squash, beans, and cocoa. In two regions of Australia, the central west coast and eastern central Australia, early agriculture with crops of yams, native millet, and bush onions may have been practised in permanent settlements.


In the Middle Ages, Agriculture transformed. The Islamic world and Europe were at the centre of this transformation. Improved techniques and the diffusion of crop plants, including the introduction of sugar, rice, cotton and fruit trees such as the orange to Europe by way of Al-Andalus.

After 1492, the Columbian exchange brought New World crops such as maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes and manioc to Europe. And Old World crops such as wheat, barley, rice and turnips and livestock including horses, cattle, sheep and goats to the Americas. Irrigation, crop rotation, and fertilizers were greatly developed in the past 200 years, starting with the British Agricultural Revolution.

Since 1900, agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the developing world, has seen large rises in productivity as human labour has been replaced by mechanization, and assisted by synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and selective breeding. Modern agriculture has raised political issues including water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified organisms, tariffs and farm subsidies, leading to alternative approaches such as the organic movement.

Agriculture in India

In 2003 the production of agricultural products was approximately worth RS 38 billion, hence, making India the seventh largest agricultural exporter. India is second in agricultural outputs and therefore GDP of the country is based on agriculture. Rice, Milk, Sugar Cane and Wheat are the crops yielding highest outputs.

Problems in agriculture were challenging but Green revolution solved the problems with the introduction of Chemicals, fertilizers and pesticides to increase the agricultural productivity. The green revolution is an agricultural revolution, therefore it is the 3rd agricultural revolution around the world. Therefore, Fiber, Food, Fuels and raw materials are the subdivisions of the agricultural crops.

Green Revolution

Green Revolution was from 1930 – 1960. It revolutionised the agriculture field including new agricultural technologies and Irrigational System. Norman Borlaug is one of the leaders of this revolution, Hence he was ” Father Of Green Revolution”. He saved billions of people from starvation and hence given the Noble Price. Quality of diet improved over the world after the green revolution.

Green revolution solved problems like Hunger and malnutrition. The increase in chemical fertilizers and pesticides deteriorated the health of people introducing Cancer and leukaemia. This terminal illness was the result of chemicals and pesticides used in growing crop.

Green Revolution in India was lead by CS Kalkat who is hence titled as ” Father of Green Revolution in India”. Modern technologies and HYV seeds bosted the agricultural yieldings of India. Since India is a developing country, the revolution initiated in  1960 in states like Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.

Before green revolution, India wasn’t a self – sufficient country. Eventually, after the green revolution, India is a self-sufficient country. The highest yielding crop in India is wheat. This revolution majorly was beneficial for the northern Indian states. Therefore, the green revolution is responsible for the advancement in India. Hence, the green revolution led to an increase in higher productivity factor.

Green Revolution

Solved Examples for You

Question: In terms of total energy generation in India, the correct sequence in decreasing order of the concerned ones is __________.

  1. Western, Northern, Southern, Eastern
  2. Southern, Northern, Western, Eastern
  3. Western, Southern, Eastern, Northern
  4. Southern, Eastern, Western, Northern

Solution: Western, Northern, Southern, Eastern

Question: A pesticide which is chlorinated hydrocarbon is sprayed on a food crop. The food chain is Food crop – Rat – Snake – Hawk. In this food chain, the highest concentration of the pesticide would accumulate in which one of the following?

  1. Food crop
  2. Rat
  3. Snake
  4. Hawk

Solution: Hawk

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3 responses to “Natural Vegetation and Wildlife of India and the World”

  1. aman verma says:

    which state has maximum forest cover area

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