Crop Production and Management


As I’m sure you have heard, India is a monsoon dependent country. This means that monsoons have a huge impact on our agricultural output and even our economy. However, this isn’t the dark ages. We now have modern techniques that help our farmers and the agricultural sector. One such practice where we have made advancements is Irrigation. Let us learn more about this.

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Irrigation essentially means the watering of land to make it ready for agricultural purposes. An irrigation system is the supplying of water via artificial canals and channels to growing plants and crops in a field.

Water is vital for the growth of plants. There can be no plants or crops if they do not have access to water in some form. It is, therefore, crucial to supply water to crops and plants, periodically and as per their requirement. So irrigation is this periodic and appropriate supply of water to plants. The water for this irrigation comes from various sources such as wells, ponds, rivers, dams, reservoirs, rainfall etc.

Importance of Irrigation

Irrigation is necessary for agriculture and farming due to the following reasons:

  1. Plants absorb minerals and nutrients from the soil via their roots. These minerals are dissolved in the water present in the soil. Then the water transports these nutrients to all parts of the plant, enabling growth and photosynthesis.
  2. Irrigation provides the moisture that is crucial during the germination phase of the plant’s life cycle.
  3. Irrigation also makes the soil more fertile (by adding moisture to it) and easier to plough.
  4. Proper irrigation also increases yield from the farm.

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Traditional Methods of Irrigation

These are the methods of irrigation that were used in the earlier years. Even today some small farms in rural areas adopt these. Although they are cheaper than the modern methods, they are not nearly as efficient. They require human or animal labour to function. Some of these methods are,

1. Moat

Also called the pulley system, it involves pulling up water from a well or other such source to irrigate the land. It is an extremely time consuming and labour intensive system, but it is very cost efficient. Also, wastage of water is avoided when using a moat system of irrigation.

2. Chain pump

A chain pump consists of two large wheels connected by a chain. There are buckets attached to the chain. One part of the chain dips into the water source. As the wheel turns, the bucket picks up water. The chain later lifts them to the upper wheel where the water gets deposited into a source. And the empty bucket gets carried back down.

3. Dhekli

It is a system of drawing water from a well or such similar source. Here we tie a rope and bucket to a pole. At the other end, we tie a heavy stick or any other object as a counterbalance. And we use this pole to draw up water.

4. Rahat

So Rahat system of irrigation uses animal labour. Above the well, we tie a large wheel. An ox or cow would turn the wheel to draw the water from the well.

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Modern Methods of Irrigation

These are more efficient systems of irrigation that were invented in the recent decades. These help us use water economically without wastage. Let us take a look at the two most important methods.

1. Drip System of Irrigation

Drip Irrigation

The most commonly used method of irrigation these days is the drip method. They lay the pipes in rows near the crops or plants. These plastic pipes have holes in them. Water seeps from these holes drop by drop, hence the name drip irrigation. This is an extremely efficient method of irrigation as it reduces water wastage.

2. Sprinkler System

Sprinkler Irrigation

This system mimics the phenomenon of rain. Water is carried by pipes to central locations on the farm. Sprinklers placed here distribute the water across the fields. This is the most efficient method to irrigate the uneven land. Sprinkler system also provides the best coverage regardless of the size of the farm.

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Solved Examples for You

Q: Which method provides water directly to the roots without wastage?

  1. Sprinkler system
  2. Drip system
  3. Moat system
  4. All of the above

Solution: The correct answer is “b”. Drip system allows water to slowly drip into the roots of the plants, either onto the soil’s surface or directly onto the root zone.

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Rishika Rathi
Rishika Rathi



bkwas se AK dam

suraj kumar
suraj kumar




Not sufficient


Can you be a little more concise and use easy words.

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