Crop Production and Management


I’m sure you have heard that India is a monsoon dependent country. Therefore, rainfall has a huge impact on our agricultural output and even on our economy. But, this isn’t the dark ages. In other words, we now have modern systems that support our farmers and the agricultural sector. For instance, one such practice where we have made advancements is in Irrigation. So, let us learn more about this.

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Irrigation means the watering of land to make it ready for agriculture. It is the process of application of water to crops through artificial channels to grow them.

Water is vital for the growth of plants. And, there can be no plants or crops if they do not have access to water in some form. It is, thus, crucial to supply water to crops and plants in time as per their need. The supply of water to plants comes from various water resources. For example,

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Importance of Irrigation

Irrigation is necessary for agriculture and farming.

  1. Firstly, it enables growth and photosynthesis in Plants. Plants absorb minerals and nutrients from the soil via their roots. These minerals dissolve in the water present in the soil. Then the water transports these nutrients to all parts of the plant. In this way, it enables growth and photosynthesis.
  2. Secondly, it provides the moisture that is crucial during the germination phase of the plant’s life cycle
  3. Thirdly, it helps increase soil fertility by adding moisture to it. It also makes the land easier to plough.
  4. Lastly, it increases the yield from the farm.

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Traditional Irrigation Methods

These irrigation systems were used in earlier years. However, even today some small farms in rural areas adopt these. Although they are cheaper than modern methods, they are not as efficient. Because they need human or animal labour to function. Some of these systems are,

1. Moat

Also called the pulley system, it involves pulling up water from a well or other such source to irrigate the land. This is a time consuming and labour intensive process, but it is very cost-efficient. Also, using a moat avoids wastage of water.

2. Chain pump

A chain pump consists of two large wheels connected by a chain. There are buckets attached to the chain. Further, one part of the chain dips into the water source. As the wheel turns, the bucket picks up water. The chain later lifts them to the upper wheel where the water gets deposited into a source. The empty bucket gets carried back down.

3. Dhekli

It is a process of drawing water from a well or such similar source. Here we tie a rope and bucket to a pole. At the other end, we tie a heavy stick or any other object as a counterbalance. And we use this pole to draw up water.

4. Rahat

Rahat uses animal labour. Above the well, we tie a large wheel. An ox or cow would turn the wheel to draw the water from the well.

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Modern Irrigation Methods

These are more efficient irrigation systems that were invented in recent decades. These help us use water economically without wastage for agriculture. Let us take a look at the two most important systems, the drip irrigation and the sprinkler.

1. Drip Irrigation System

Drip Irrigation

Drip irrigation is the most used irrigation system these days. In the drip irrigation, we lay plastic pipes in rows near the crops or plants. These pipes have holes in them. The water seeps from these holes drop by drop, hence the name drip irrigation. Drip irrigation is one of the most efficient irrigation methods as it reduces water wastage in agriculture.

2. Sprinkler System

Sprinkler Irrigation

Sprinkler systems mimic the phenomenon of rain. In sprinkler systems, the pipes carry water to central locations on the farm. The sprinklers placed there, distribute the water across the fields. The sprinkler method is one of the most efficient irrigation methods to irrigate the uneven land for agriculture. In addition, sprinkler systems provide the best coverage regardless of the size of the farm.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Which of the following systems supply water directly to the roots without wastage?

  1. Sprinkler
  2. Drip irrigation
  3. Moat
  4. All the above

Solution: The correct answer is “b”. Drip method allows water to drip into the roots of the plants, either onto the soil’s surface or onto the root zone.

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10 responses to “Irrigation”

  1. Rishika Rathi says:


  2. suraj kumar says:



  3. Kabeer says:

    Not sufficient

  4. Rahul says:

    Can you be a little more concise and use easy words.

  5. Sheshasai says:

    At least learnt something new, Thanks 👍👍…

  6. himanshu says:

    you should learn about vk rain irrigation system who”s modern method of irrigation . but your knowladge was great

  7. srimathi says:


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