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Geography > Our Changing Earth > Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere – An Overview
Our Changing Earth

Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere – An Overview

Northern Hemisphere

The equator of the Earth splits the Earth into roughly two equal parts which are known as hemispheres. These two hemispheres are the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere.

Students can learn more about the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere. Moreover, the students would learn about the comparison between them in various aspects.

What is Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere?

The northern hemisphere refers to the northern half of hemisphere. This means that the northern hemisphere lies to the north of the equator.

The definition of the north for other planets in the solar system is as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as the North Pole of the planet Earth. Around 60% of the surface of Northern Hemisphere is water.

northern hemisphere

The southern hemisphere refers to the half of the Earth which is to the south of the Equator. It contains all or parts of the five continents which are Antarctica. Africa, Australia, South America, and Asia. Moreover, it has four oceans which are Southern, Indian, South Atlantic, and South Pacific.

Geographical Comparison

The Northern Hemisphere is certainly that half of the Earth which lies to the equator’s north. In contrast, Southern Hemisphere lies to the south of the planet Earth’s equator.

Moreover, there are some continents have parts in both the hemispheres. Europe and North America lie completely in the northern hemisphere.

Almost all of the entire Asian continent and one-tenth of South America lie in the northern hemisphere. The North Pole is certainly in the hemisphere of the north.

In contrast, the South Pole lies in the Southern Hemisphere and at its most southern part.

Seasonal Comparison

There are differences in summer and winter seasons between the two hemispheres. Consequently, this results in very different temperatures at the same time of year between the most southern and northern locations at any particular time of the year.

In the North, summer, officially speaking, occurs from the summer solstice until the autumnal equinox. Winter, officially speaking, occurs from the winter solstice until the vernal equinox.

Summer in the Southern Hemisphere typically occurs between Dec. 22 and March 20, while the winter season typically occurs from June 21 to September 21.

Population and Pollution Comparison

About 90 per cent of the human population resides in the hemisphere of the north. The remaining 10 per cent reside in the hemisphere of the south. The Earth’s landmass is mostly in the hemisphere of the north.

Some variations in pollution are certainly notable when it comes to the two hemispheres. Most noteworthy, the southern hemisphere has a much smaller population in comparison to its northern counterpart.

Therefore, there is a significantly lesser amount of industrialization and pollution in the southern hemisphere compared to the north.

Storm Movements Comparison

As a result of the Coriolis effect, the hurricanes and tropical storms tend to rotate in a clockwise direction when occurring in the Southern Hemisphere. Furthermore, they rotate counterclockwise in the hemisphere of the north.

During the day in the Northern Hemisphere, the sun rises to its maximum point at a southerly position. This is because goes with the direction of the equator (south).

In the Southern Hemisphere, the opposite situation takes place. Therefore, in the south, the sun rises to the maximum point in a northern direction.

Solved Question For You

Q1 Which of the following is not a possible factor of comparison between the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere?

A. Geographical Comparison
B. Earthquake Comparison
C. Seasonal Comparison
D. Storm Movements Comparison

A1 The correct option is B., which is “earthquake comparison”. This is because earthquake comparison is not a suitable factor of comparison between the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere.

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