Weighing at just 2% of the total body weight, the human brain is probably the most complex structure. It is the centre of control of all the body functions and senses. The average weight of the human brain is around 1.5 kg and it contains about 86 billion nerve cells (neurons) that control every action you take. Read more…
The human brain along with the spinal cord, make up the Central Nervous System in humans. It is the command centre for the Nervous system. The brain controls even the smallest of our actions such as laughing; crying out in pain, walking, breathing, etc. It is a communication centre where decision making happens and is also responsible for the communication and coordination between different parts of the body. Now, this communication takes place with the help of neurons or nerve cells that send information in the form of chemical and electrical signals. The brain receives input from the sensory organs and then sends out the output to the muscles.
Parts of the human brain
The human brain is made up different parts and compartments, for each of the functions. Take a look at the different parts of the brain.
- Hind Brain
(Source – Wikipedia)
It is the main thinking part of the brain and controls the voluntary actions. The forebrain processes sensory information that is collected from the various sense organs such as ears, eyes, nose, tongue, skin. It is because of the presence of forebrain, humans are placed at the highest level in the animal chain.
The forebrain consists of the Cerebrum, Thalamus and Hypothalamus.
The cerebrum is the biggest part of the brain. This part we associate with higher brain functions such as thinking and action. It contains the cerebral cortex and other subcortical structures. The cerebral cortex is highly wrinkled and makes the brain very efficient. Now the cerebral cortex again divides into four divisions called lobes. They are:
- Frontal lobe –Is associated with parts of speech, reasoning, problem-solving, planning, movement and emotions
- Parietal lobe – We associate parietal lobe with recognition, orientation, and perception of stimuli
- Occipital lobe – Is responsible for visual processing
- Temporal lobe – Finally temporal lobe is associated with memory, speech perception and recognition of auditory stimuli
The cerebrum is divided into two halves by a deep furrow. These halves are the left and right hemispheres. Each side functions slightly different from the other, even though they are symmetrical. So the right hemisphere links to creativity whereas the left hemisphere relates to logic abilities. And Corpus callosum connects the two hemispheres.
The midbrain connects the forebrain and the hindbrain. It acts as a bridge and transmits signals from hindbrain and forebrain. It is associated with motor control, vision, hearing, temperature regulation, alertness.
It is the control centre for visceral function.As a result, this part of the brain plays a role in controlling the heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, sleep and waking up functions etc. The hindbrain has three parts, namely – medulla oblongata, pons and cerebellum.
The cerebellum is responsible for maintaining equilibrium, transfer of information, fine adjustments to motor actions, coordinating eye movements etc. Coordination and body balance, posture during walking, riding, standing, swimming, running, are all maintained by the cerebellum.
Learn more about Reflex Action here in detail.
Solved Questions For You
Q: You are walking in a straight line or bending down to pick up a pencil. Which part of the brain controls these actions?
Q: What connects the two hemispheres of the brain?
Ans: Corpus callosum.