Its IUPAC name is 2-propanone. Also, it is an organic compound that chemical industries majorly use as a solvent. Also, acetone is a precursor in organic synthesis. Furthermore, it is the simplest and smallest ketone. In industries, laboratories, and houses it serves as an important solvent. Also, it is miscible with water. Learn Acetone Formula here.
Acetone Formula and Structure
In 2010, about 6.7 million tons were produced worldwide, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A. Besides, it is a common building block of organic chemistry. Moreover, its household uses are as an active ingredient in nail polish remover and as a paint thinner.
The chemical formula of acetone is CH3COCH3 and its condensed formula is C3H6O. The molar mass of acetone is 58.08 g mol-1. Furthermore, it’s the simplest ketone that forms by a three-carbon chain which has two of the hydrogen from second carbon substituted by an oxygen double-bound by a carbon atom.
Moreover, the center of the molecule is planar-trigonal owing to the C sp2. On the other hand, the extremes have a methyl group with tetrahedral geometry. Besides, the common representation of organic molecules can be written as below:
Occurrence of Acetone
In nature, acetone can be found as being part of many organisms such as plants and animals. Also, volcanic gases is another source where we can find it. Particularly, the human body produces acetone through the metabolic process of ketosis. However, this process is mostly present in people who either have diabetes or have a diet of low-carbohydrate.
Oxidation of cumene is the most common method from which we prepare acetone. The method follows two steps: The first part in which benzene reacts with propane to produce the cumene which is then oxidized by the flow of O2 to form cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). After that, catalyst action cut the CHP into phenol and acetone:
Another method of producing acetone is the hydration of isopropyl alcohol which happens in the presence of a copper catalyst.
Acetone Physical Properties
It is a colorless substance that has a sweetish odor and is a volatile liquid. Furthermore, the melting point is -94.9oC and the boiling point is 56.08oC. The density of acetone is 0.785 g mL-1. Moreover, it is miscible with water, benzene, ether, dimethylformamide, and alcohol.
Acetone Chemical properties
It has a molecule of a carbonyl group –C=O in the center that results in molecule polarization since the carbon is less electronegative than oxygen. That’s why we can use it as a reactant with nucleophilic molecules that attack the carbonyl carbon deficient in electrons.
It is an important building block in organic synthesis. Also, we use it in the medical and cosmetics industry, especially as a nail polish remover. The chemical and petroleum industry extensively uses it to produce solvents, adhesives, and sealants, plastic and rubber, agricultural products, coats, and paints, etc.
In other organic syntheses, it acts as an intermediate. Normally acetone is present in urine and blood. The person with diabetes produces it in large amounts.
The potential for it to cause reproductive problems are low. Furthermore, the blood ketone bodies increase due to the ketogenic diet that the body uses to counter epileptic attacks in infants and children who suffer from recalcitrant refractory epilepsy.
Safety and Health Hazard
It can cause serious eye damage and irritation in the mucous membrane. There is a suspicion that it causes infertility or the unborn child. Its long term exposure can damage some organs. Besides, its liquid and gas are extremely flammable.
Solved Example for You
Question: How we prepare acetone in the past?
Solution: In the past, the production of acetone was done by dry distillation of acetates from calcium acetate in ketonic decarboxylation.
Ca(CH3COO)2 → CaO(s) + CO2(g) + (CH3)2CO (v)